Advertisement

Si Silicon pp 80-98 | Cite as

Silicon Nitride for Protecting and Passivating Devices. Improving the Radiation Resistance

  • Eberhard F. Krimmel
  • Rudolf Hezel
  • Uwe Nohl
  • Rainer Bohrer
Chapter
Part of the Si. Silicium. Silicon (System-Nr. 15) book series (GMELIN, volume S-i / B / 1-5 / 5 / c)

Abstract

Semiconductor devices have to be stable and long-lasting. Electronically active parts of such devices are often thin surface layers with a thickness as low as 20 nm. p-n junctions that emerge at the surface are sensitive to mechanical damage, moisture, contamination, chemical attack, radiation, etc. Devices are protected or passivated by applying thin silicon nitride surface layers which become an integral part of the basic device and secure its specified function for a predetermined minimum period of time [1, 2]. Passivation prevents surface leakage, high diffusivity, and mobility of impurities, such as Na or K, and reduces localized near-surface states. For the determination of passivation effects, see for example [4]. The application of protective silicon nitride layers in special high-temperature processes is described in Chapter 7.1, p. 99. See also the introductory remarks of Chapter 4, p. 72.

Keywords

Silicon Nitride Passivation Layer Silicon Oxide Layer Silicon Oxide Film Silicon Nitride Film 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Lelakowska, K. (Elektronika 11 [1970] 161/3; C.A. 74 [1971] No. 16793).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Kuehler, K. (Ger. Offen. 2144362 [1971/73] from C.A. 78 [1973] No. 152948).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Yabe, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–232147 [1987] from C.A. 108 [1988] No. 141665).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Schipanski, D.; Herzer, R.; Valerahova, D. (Wiss. Z. T.H. Ilmenau 30 [1984] 141/52 from C.A. 101 [1984] No. 181933).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Fukutomi, T. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–84122 [1988] from C.A. 109 [1988] No. 161857).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Maguire, C. F.; Jarrett, Q. T.; Bartholomew, C. Y. (Solid State Technol. 15 [1972] 46/9, 55; C.A. 77 [1972] No. 26280).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    Kanetani, M.; Hokodate, K.; Igarashi, Y.; Nakazawa, S. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–84121 [1988] from C.A. 109 [1988] No. 161860).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Doo, V. Y. (Intern. Conf. Prop. Use MIS Struct. Proc, Grenoble, France, 1969, pp. 531/52 from C.A. 75 [1971] No. 42130).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Dunca, T. G.; Banoiu, G. P.; Georgescu, S. S.; Sdrulla, D. G.; Ghita, I. (Rom. 87749 [1985] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 201 552).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    McDonald, B. A.; Dragmire, M. B. (U.S. 3627598 [1970/71]; C.A. 76 [1972] No. 65370).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Gregor, L V.; Zuegel, M. (Ger. Offen. 2052810 [1969/71]; C.A. 76 [1972] No. 39091).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Ono, M.; Kanebako, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–150377 [1986] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 236934).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    Kawahara, Y. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–90139 [1988] from C.A. 109 [1988] No. 161874).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Preece, J. B.; Dautzenberg, W. J. (U.S. 3585089 [1969/71]; C.A. 75 [1971] No. 55379).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Herr, E. A. (Annu. Proc. Reliab. Phys. Symp. 10 [1972] 69/71; C.A. 78 [1973] No. 64067).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Rosen, A.; Swartz, G. A.; Duigon, F. C; Gombar, A. M. (J. Electrochem. Soc. 125 [1978] 680/1).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Ressel, F.; Ritter, A. (Ger. Offen. 2031071 [1970/72] from C.A. 76 [1972] No. 105426).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Verderber, R. R.; Gruber, G. A.; Ostroski, H. W.; Johnson, J. E.; Tarneja, K. S.; Gillott, D. M.; Covertson, B. J. (IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 17 [1970] 797/9; C.A. 74 [1971] No. 36165).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Wei, L. S. (U.S. 4349394 [1979/82]; C.A. 97 [1982] No. 173537).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Hitachi Microcomputer Engineering Ltd.; Hitachi Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–21531 [1985] from C.A. 103 [1985] No. 31263).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Scholz, F.; Hwang, J. M.; Schroder, D. K. (Solid State Electron. 31 [1988] 205/17; C.A. 109 [1988] No. 15492).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    RCA Corp.; Solid State Div. (NASA-CR-161282 [1979] 1 /16 from C. A. 92 [1980] No. 50862).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Noyori, M.; Nakata, Y.; Shiragasawa, T. (IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED–30 [1983] 1305/13; C.A. 100 [1984] No. 28523).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Noyori, M.; Nakata, Y. (IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED–31 [1984] 1687/92; C.A. 102 [1985] No. 37705).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Deal, B. E. (U.S. 3550256 [1967/70]; C.A. 74 [1971] No. 58552).Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Milek, J. T. (Silicon Nitride for Microelectronic Applications, Pt. 2, JFI/Plenum Press, New York 1972, pp. 1/117, 24/38).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Bell Telephone Manufg. Co. N. V. (Neth. Appl. 6405186 [1964] from C.A. 63 [1965] 1321).Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Westinghouse Electric Corp. (Brit. 1227851 [1971]; C.A. 75 [1971] No. 12353).Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Fischer, H.; Rau, S.; Trappe, P. (Ger. [East] 90185 [1971/72] from C.A. 77 [1972] No. 132422).Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Sato, J.; Maeda, K.; Yamakarri, E. (Japan. 48–7246 [1973] from C.A. 80 [1974] No. 64964).Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Bierke, H. J.; Fischer, H.; Flietner, H.; Fuessel, W.; Heilig, U.; Rau, S. (Ger. [East] 220174 [1985]; C.A. 103 [1985] No. 114571).Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Western Electric Co., Inc. (Neth. Appl. 66–3355 [1965/66] from C.A. 66 [1967] No. 80453).Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Suwa Seikosha Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–157529 [1981/ 82] from C.A. 97 [1982] No. 228627).Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Tsuda, S. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–159437 [1987] from C.A. 108 [1988] No. 47654).Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Bellersen, M. (BMFT-FB-T 83–080 [1983] 1/106; C.A. 99 [1983] No. 97507).Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Nobe, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 01–098231 [1989] from C.A. 111 [1989] No. 88917).Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Ogawa, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–308326 [1987/88] from C.A. 110 [1989] No. 223925).Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Trapp, O. D.; Preece, J. B. (Annu. Proc. Reliab. Phys. Symp. 6 [1967/68] 96/105 from C.A. 72 [1970] No. 105199).Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Licentia Patentverwaltungs-GmbH (Brit. 1339293 [1973]; C.A. 80 [1974] No. 101577).Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Cervenak, J.; Guldan, A.; Luby, S.; Husa, V. (Czech. 148194 [1971/73] from C.A. 79 [1973] No. 84796).Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    Guldan, A.; Buch, J.; Luby, S.; Cervenak, J. (Elektrotech. Casopis 24 [1973] 3/12 from C.A. 78 [1973] No. 165937).Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    Peters, J. W.; Hall, T. C; Erickson, J. J.; Gebhard, F. L. (NASA-CR–161 302 [1979] 1/58; C.A. 92 [1980] No. 156612).Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Greenwood, J. C; Young, J. M. (U.S. 4131985 [1976/79]; C.A. 90 [1979] No. 131795).Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Yamane, M.; Watanabe, T.; Itoga, K.; Ishibashi, K.; Morita, Y.; Yamamoto, I.; Imanaka, K. (U.S. 4283838 [1976/81]; C.A. 95 [1981] No. 179735).Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Deutsche ITT Industries G.m.b.H. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–154133 [1986] from C.A.106 [1987] No. 26566).Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Strain, R. J. (Bell Lab. Record 48 [1970] 273/8; C.A. 74 [1971] No. 58465).Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Fujitsu Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 55–160434 [1979/80] from C.A. 94 [1981] No. 184438).Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    Ono, M.; Momoi, T. (U.S. 3874915 [1967/75]; C.A. 83 [1975] No. 36616).Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    Wenzig, W.; Spaeth W. (U.S. 3903591 [1971/75]; C.A. 83 [1975] No. 187392).Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    Sony Corp. (Fr. Demande 2290040 [1974/76] from C.A. 86 [1977] No. 64495).Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    Szendro, I.; Marton, E.; Erdos, L; Toth, G.; Huszke, Z.; Motal, G.; Puskas, L.; Demjan, L; Bohus, J. (Hung. Teljes 31798 [1982/84] from C.A. 101 [1984] No. 142360).Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    Matsumoto, Y. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–81631 [1986] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 106866).Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    Matsumoto, Y. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–37624 [1988] from C.A. 109 [1988] No. 30971).Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    Tanimoto, S. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–170067 [1986] from C.A. 106 [1987] No. 11705).Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    Fujitsu Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–51523 [1981/83] from C.A. 99 [1983] No. 46693).Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    Kagami, T.; Murakami, S.; Misawa, Y. Monma, N.; Sugawara, Y. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–224231 [1985] from C.A. 104 [1986] No. 140511).Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    Kagami, T.; Murakami, S.; Sugawara, Y. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–53933 [1988] from C.A. 108 [1988] No. 214964).Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    Uda, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–145822 [1987] from C.A. 107 [1987] No. 210533).Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    Matsushita Electronics Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–29425 [1982/84] from C.A. 101 [1984] No. 31 964).Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    Watanabe, Y.; Kaoruda, H.; Tanaka, K.; Mayama, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–312646 [1987/88] from C.A. 111 [1989] No. 107151).Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    Yanagi, T.; Sawada, A. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 01–072532 [1989] from C.A. 111 [1989] No. 223607).Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    Lindenfelser, T. M. (U.S. 4614666 [1986]; C.A. 105 [1986] No. 217582).Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    Matsushita Electronics Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–34638 [1982/84] from C.A. 101 [1984] No. 47343).Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    Shimoda, H. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–59738 [1986] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 71193).Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    Kodama, T. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–142522 [1985] from C.A. 104 [1986] No. 44517).Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    Yamazaki, S. (Ger. 1696625 [1966/72]; C.A. 78 [1973] No. 64135).Google Scholar
  67. [67]
    Yamauchi, T.; Honda, T. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–67924 [1986] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 71190).Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    RCA Corp. (Brit. 1 366487 [1970/74]; C.A. 82 [1975] No. 67297).Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    Goetzberger, A.; Kellner, W. (Ger. Offen. 2308803 [1974] from C.A. 82 [1975] No. 10542).Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    Kawabuchi, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–154131 [1986] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 236970).Google Scholar
  71. [71]
    Kawabuchi, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–154171 [1986] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 236974).Google Scholar
  72. [72]
    Iwamatsu, S. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–276331 [1986] from C.A. 106 [1987] No. 206290).Google Scholar
  73. [73]
    Iwamatsu, S. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–28069 [1988] from C.A. 109 [1988] No. 30942).Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    Aoki, T.; Matsushita, T.; Mifune, T.; Abe, M. (Ger. Offen. 2617398 [1975/76] from C.A. 86 [1977] No. 11269).Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    Soldatov, V. S.; Titov, V. B.; Varlashov, I. B.; Smotrakov, A. A. (Tr. Mosk. Energ. Inst. No. 219 [1975] 104/8 from C.A. 85 [1976] No. 152846).Google Scholar
  76. [76]
    Blaha, R. E.; Fahrner, W. R. (Phys. Status Solid) A 50 [1978] 551/62; C.A. 90 [1979] No. 65453).Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    Siemens A.-G. (Brit. 1164418 [1967/69]; C.A. 71 [1969] No. 106866).Google Scholar
  78. [78]
    Yadoiwa, Y. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–219141 [1986] from C.A. 106 [1987] No. 77174).Google Scholar
  79. [79]
    Hayashi, Y. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 01–009625 [1989] from C.A. 110 [1989] No. 204139).Google Scholar
  80. [80]
    International Business Machines Corp. (Japan. Tokkyo Koho 55–17484 [1970/80] from CA. 93 [1980] No. 178333).Google Scholar
  81. [81]
    Hitachi Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 56–91453 [1979/81] from C.A. 95 [1981] No. 196262).Google Scholar
  82. [82]
    Nakamura, M. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 55–1143 [1978/80] from CA. 92 [1980] No. 207815).Google Scholar
  83. [83]
    Kimura, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 55–22865 [1978/80] from C.A. 93 [1980] No. 87030).Google Scholar
  84. [84]
    Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 56–153751 [1980/81] from C.A. 96 [1982] No. 96246).Google Scholar
  85. [85]
    Hitachi Ltd.; Hitachi Aomi Denshi K. K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–28335 [1980/82] from CA. 96 [1982] No. 227549).Google Scholar
  86. [86]
    Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–33843 [1981/83] from C.A. 98 [1983] No. 226504).Google Scholar
  87. [87]
    Suwa Seikosha Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–91651 [1981/83] from CA. 99 [1983] No. 114532).Google Scholar
  88. [88]
    Toshiba Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–13333 [1982/84] from CA. 100 [1984] No. 220125).Google Scholar
  89. [89]
    Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–137233 [1982/83] from CA. 99 [1983] No. 223511).Google Scholar
  90. [90]
    Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–124444 [1981/82] from CA. 98 [1983] No. 10480).Google Scholar
  91. [91]
    Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–12340 [1981/83] from C.A. 98 [1983] No. 226463).Google Scholar
  92. [92]
    Mori, M.; Konishi, S. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–120024 [1987] from C.A. 107 [1987] No. 107613).Google Scholar
  93. [93]
    NEC Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–232425 [1984] from C.A. 103 [1985] No. 31151).Google Scholar
  94. [94]
    Okuzumi, T. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–3413 [1986] from CA. 104 [1986] No. 235636).Google Scholar
  95. [95]
    Ono, M.; Kanebako, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–150279 [1986] from CA. 105 [1986] No. 236965).Google Scholar
  96. [96]
    Saito, M. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–85826 [1986] from CA. 105 [1986] No. 163295).Google Scholar
  97. [97]
    Sato, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–73527 [1988] from C.A. 109 [1988] No. 30966).Google Scholar
  98. [98]
    Takashima, I. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–145628 [1985] from C.A. 104 [1986] No. 60570).Google Scholar
  99. [99]
    Idogami, T. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–114260 [1988] from CA. 109 [1988] No. 121076).Google Scholar
  100. [100]
    Ozeki, N. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–274731 [1987] from C.A. 108 [1988] No. 141707).Google Scholar
  101. [101]
    Ogura, S.; Yamazaki, K.; Yamanaka, K.; Taniguchi, H.; Takahashi, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–4623 [1988] from CA. 108 [1988] No. 141691).Google Scholar
  102. [102]
    Imai, H. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–265431 [1988] from CA. 110 [1989] No. 164530).Google Scholar
  103. [103]
    Kagami, T.; Murakami, S.; Sugawara, Y. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 01–061921 [1989] from C.A. 111 [1989] No. 185693).Google Scholar
  104. [104]
    Hitachi Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–56734 [1983/84] from C.A. 101 [1984]Google Scholar
  105. No. 82601). [105] Takasaki, K.; Shioya, Y. (Eur. Appl. 45593 [1980/82] from C.A. 96 [1982] No. 154010).Google Scholar
  106. [106]
    Nakamura, M. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–155730 [1988] from C.A. 109 [1988] No. 220919).Google Scholar
  107. [107]
    Toshiba Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–88734 [1980/82] from C.A. 97 [1982] No. 154896).Google Scholar
  108. [108]
    Kobayashi, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–245137 [1985] from C.A. 104 [1986] No. 216197).Google Scholar
  109. [109]
    Kobayashi, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–81630 [1986] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 106867).Google Scholar
  110. [110]
    Kato, J. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 01–045132 [1987/89] from C.A. 111 [1989] No. 16272).Google Scholar
  111. [111]
    Kato, J. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 01 – 045133 [1987/89] from C. A. 111 [1989] No. 16273).Google Scholar
  112. [112]
    Fujitsu Ltd. (Japan. Tokkyo Koho 59–33256 [1979/84] from C.A. 102 [1985] No. 38084).Google Scholar
  113. [113]
    Goto, H.; Sakuma, T. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–117429 [1988] from C.A. 109 [1988] No. 220889).Google Scholar
  114. [114]
    Matsuhashi, H. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 01–047032 [1987/89] from C.A. 111 [1989] No. 207473).Google Scholar
  115. [115]
    Fujitsu Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–45931 [1980/82] from C.A. 97 [1982] No.32226).Google Scholar
  116. [116]
    Ota, H. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–203337 [1987] from C.A. 108 [1988] No. 67287).Google Scholar
  117. [117]
    Toshiba Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–122738 [1982/83] from C.A. 99 [1983] No. 185921).Google Scholar
  118. [118]
    Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–139930 [1981/82] from C.A. 98 [1983] No. 26351).Google Scholar
  119. [119]
    Fujitsu Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 56–169333 [1980/81] from C.A. 96 [1982] No. 134368).Google Scholar
  120. [120]
    Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–199224 [1981/82] from C.A. 98 [1983] No. 153669).Google Scholar
  121. [121]
    Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–199226 [1981/82] from C.A. 98 [1983] No. 153674).Google Scholar
  122. [122]
    Hitachi Ltd. (Brit. 1291683 [1970/72] from C.A. 77 [1972] No. 157909).Google Scholar
  123. [123]
    Watanabe, K.; Kato, M.; Okabe, T.; Nagata, M. (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS–33 [1986] 1216/22; C.A. 106 [1987] No. 57522).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. [124]
    Kanazawa, M.; Nakagami, Y. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–39025 [1987] from C.A. 106 [1987] No. 187557).Google Scholar
  125. [125]
    Mitarai, G.; Satsuma, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–192240 [1988] from C.A. 110 [1989] No. 49696).Google Scholar
  126. [126]
    Watabe, T.; Inoue, S. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–72131 [1988] from C.A. 109 [1988] No. 140848).Google Scholar
  127. [127]
    Groves, C. K.; Duncan, K.; Darwall, E. C. D. (Ger. Offen. 3241895 [1983]; C.A. 99 [1983] No. 204657).Google Scholar
  128. [128]
    Aoki, R.; Okumura, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–120429 [1988] from C.A. 109 [1988] No. 203220).Google Scholar
  129. [129]
    Temofonte, T. A.; Szedon, J. R. (Annu. Proc. Reliab. Phys. Symp. 9 [1971] 107/13 from C.A. 77 [1972] No. 119688).Google Scholar
  130. [130]
    Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 55–3807 [1968/80] from C.A. 93 [1980] No. 59723).Google Scholar
  131. [131]
    Toshiba Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–33834 [1982/84] from C.A. 101 [1984] No. 46320).Google Scholar
  132. [132]
    Matsushita Electronics Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–98939 [1981/83] from C.A. 99 [1983] No. 150672).Google Scholar
  133. [133]
    Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–183057 [1981/82] from C.A. 98 [1983] No. 153627).Google Scholar
  134. [134]
    Usuki, K.; Atsumi, T.; Wakashima, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–222229 [1986] from C.A. 106 [1987] No. 94567).Google Scholar
  135. [135]
    Yamazaki, K.; Gomi, H. (Eur. Appl. 259826 [1988] from C.A. 109 [1988] No. 203122).Google Scholar
  136. [136]
    Sony Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–19143 [1985] from C.A. 103 [1985] No. 114549).Google Scholar
  137. [137]
    Wada, T.; Sugimoto, M.; Ajiiki, T. (J. Electrochem. Soc. 136 [1989] 732/5).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. [138]
    Comizzoli, R. B.; White, L K.; Kern, W.; Schnäble, G. L; Peters, D. A.; Tracy, C. E.; Vibronek, R. D. (Annu. Proc. Reliab. Phys. Symp. 18 [1980] 282/92; C.A. 95 [1981] No. 140724).Google Scholar
  139. [139]
    Ohta, T. (Brit. Appl. 2092376 [1980/82] from C.A. 97 [1982] No. 173528).Google Scholar
  140. [140]
    Fujitsu Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–128036 [1981/82] from C.A. 98 [1983] No. 26320).Google Scholar
  141. [141]
    Jain, F. C; Rosato, J. J.; Kalonia, K. S.; Agarwala, V. S. (Corrosion [Houston] 42 [1986] 700/7; C.A. 106 [1987] No. 92446).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. [142]
    Toshiba Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–150427 [1983/84] from C.A. 102 [1985] No. 88511).Google Scholar
  143. [143]
    Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–175829 [1982/83] from C.A. 100 [1S84] No. 16328).Google Scholar
  144. [144]
    Yokoyama, H.; Takahashi, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–52476 [1988] from C.A. 109 [1988] No. 15746).Google Scholar
  145. [145]
    Teal, V.; Vaidya, S.; Fraser, F. B. (Thin Solid Films 136 [1986] 21/8).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. [146]
    Roman, P.; Luby, S.; Valicek, J.; Prejda, M. (Elektrotech. Casopis 38 [1987] 61/9 from C.A. 107 [1987] No. 31632).Google Scholar
  147. [147]
    Diligenti, A.; Bagnoli, P. E.; Neri, B.; Bea, S.; Mantellassi, L. (Solid State Electron. 32 [1989] 11/6; C.A. 110 [1989] No. 145719).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. [148]
    Belan, J.; Strapko, F. (Solid State Electron. 32 [1989] 421/4; C.A. 111 [1989] No. 164962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. [149]
    Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–134446 [1982/83] from C.A. 99 [1983] No. 223461).Google Scholar
  150. [150]
    Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–197856 [1982/83] from C.A. 100 [1984] No. 130911).Google Scholar
  151. [151]
    Hitachi Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–52331 [1976/83] from C.A. 100 [1984] No. 149554).Google Scholar
  152. [152]
    Toshiba Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–219740 [1982/83] from C.A. 100 [1984] No. 166428).Google Scholar
  153. [153]
    Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–72744 [1982/84] from C.A. 101 [1984] No. 121444).Google Scholar
  154. [154]
    Toko Inc. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–177937 [1983/84] from C.A. 102 [1985] No. 123985).Google Scholar
  155. [155]
    International Business Machines Corp. (Neth. Appl. 73–16183 [1972/74] from C.A. 83 [1975] No. 52423).Google Scholar
  156. [156]
    Luborsky, F. E. (IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG–22 [1986] 937/9; C.A. 105 [1986] No. 182579).Google Scholar
  157. [157]
    Carver, G. E.; Gurev, H. S.; Séraphin, B. O. (J. Electrochem. Soc. 125 [1978] 1138/40).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. [158]
    NEC Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–57635 [1985] from C.A. 103 [1985] No. 133319).Google Scholar
  159. [159]
    Kobayakawa, H. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–23325 [1986] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 16517).Google Scholar
  160. [160]
    Kyushu Nippon Denki K. K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–94437 [1982/84] from C.A. 101 [1984] No. 182222).Google Scholar
  161. [161]
    Senda, K.; Susa, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Hiroshima, Y. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–49426 [1986] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 53138).Google Scholar
  162. [162]
    Takemura, K.; Sakamoto, M. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–133726 [1987] from C.A. 107 [1987] No. 210529).Google Scholar
  163. [163]
    Yoshihara, T. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–59 739 [1986] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 71194).Google Scholar
  164. [164]
    Shinnippon Musen Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 56–28376 [1975/81] from C.A. 95 [1981] No. 196258).Google Scholar
  165. [165]
    NEC Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–103625 [1985] from C.A. 104 [1986] No. 13682).Google Scholar
  166. [166]
    Sony Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–38188 [1976/82] from C.A. 98 [1983] No. 45 272).Google Scholar
  167. [167]
    NEC Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–94831 [1982/84] from C.A. 101 [1984] No. 182210).Google Scholar
  168. [168]
    Striny, K. M.; Schelling, A. W. (Proc. Electron. Compon. Conf. 31 [1981] 238/44; C.A. 95 [1981] No. 213924).Google Scholar
  169. [169]
    Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd.; Tokyo Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 56–120167 [1980/81] from C.A. 96 [1982] No. 14277).Google Scholar
  170. [170]
    Scherber, W. (Intern. Conf. Prop. Use MIS Struct. Proc, Grenoble, Fr., 1969, pp. 103/14; C.A. 75 [1971] No. 26950).Google Scholar
  171. [171]
    Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–93530 [1980/82] from C.A. 97 [1982] No. 154908).Google Scholar
  172. [172]
    Yamazaki, S. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–140139 [1986] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 217510).Google Scholar
  173. [173]
    Fujioka, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–104483 [1988] from C. A. 109 [1988] No. 161902).Google Scholar
  174. [174]
    Kanebako, K.; Ono, M.; Kawabuchi, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–139066 [1986] from C.A. 106 [1987] No. 11682).Google Scholar
  175. [175]
    Hitachi Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–96736 [1982/84] from C.A. 101 [1984] No. 182227).Google Scholar
  176. [176]
    General Electric Co. (Neth. Appl. 87–1543 [1988] from C.A. 109 [1988] No. 181876).Google Scholar
  177. [177]
    Yamazaki, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–98625 [1987] from C.A. 107 [1987] No. 88035).Google Scholar
  178. [178]
    Yamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Kiyota, H. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–12033 [1986] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 16502).Google Scholar
  179. [179]
    Kitamura, M. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–288430 [1986] from C.A. 107 [1987] No. 31 924).Google Scholar
  180. [180]
    Wakashima, K.; Kai, S. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–145834 [1986] from C.A. 106 [1987] No. 11694).Google Scholar
  181. [181]
    Matsui, H.; Ushio, S. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–81033 [1987] from C.A. 107 [1987] No. 125435).Google Scholar
  182. [182]
    Possin, G. E.; Parks, H. G.; Piper, W. W. (Ger. Offen. 3714482 [1987]; C.A. 108 [1988] No. 67309).Google Scholar
  183. [183]
    Hayashi, H.; Yamoto, H.; Sakai, C. (Eur. Appl. 152624 [1985] from C.A. 104 [1986] No. 13763).Google Scholar
  184. [184]
    Yamazaki, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–18043 [1987] from C.A. 106 [1987] No. 187542).Google Scholar
  185. [185]
    Yamazaki, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–174927 [1987] from C.A. 108 [1988] No. 14944).Google Scholar
  186. [186]
    Takahashi, M.; Nozawa, T. (Denshi Tsushin Gakkai Ronbunshi C J69-C [1986] 1518/25 from C.A. 106 [1987] No. 167143).Google Scholar
  187. [187]
    Yoshimi, T.; Sugawara, K.; Sakai, H.; Ito, T.; Hara, Y.; Harada, Y.; Mukai, K.; Hiraiwa, A. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–10017 [1987] from C.A. 107 [1987] No. 31914).Google Scholar
  188. [188]
    Zhang, S. (Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu 85–100896 [1985] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 182326).Google Scholar
  189. [189]
    Yokoi, K.; Suga, S.; Fujioka, T. (Eur. Appl. 269008 [1988]; C.A. 109 [1988] No. 203140).Google Scholar
  190. [190]
    Hitachi Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–105364 [1982/84] from C.A. 101 [1984] No. 202691).Google Scholar
  191. [191]
    NEC Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–207668 [1983/84] from C.A. 102 [1985] No. 177612).Google Scholar
  192. [192]
    National Semiconductor Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–10970 [1980/82] from C.A. 96 [1982] No. 191676).Google Scholar
  193. [193]
    Toshiba Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–4222 [1985] from C.A. 103 [1985] No. 31160).Google Scholar
  194. [194]
    Shiono, N. (Rev. Electr. Commun. Lab. 26 [1978] 547/56; C.A. 89 [1978] No. 121696).Google Scholar
  195. [195]
    Ishikawa, H.; Takahata, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–153164 [1985] from C.A. 104 [1986] No. 80521).Google Scholar
  196. [196]
    Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 55–56635 [1978/80] from C.A. 93 [1980] No. 160122).Google Scholar
  197. [197]
    Lavigne, A. P. (Fr. Demande 2458144 [1979/80] from C.A. 95 [1981] No. 196250).Google Scholar
  198. [198]
    Hara, S.; Ogihara, S.; Ogawa, T. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 53–52525 [1976/78] from C.A. 90 [1979] No. 15398).Google Scholar
  199. [199]
    Dell’oca, C. J.; Barry, M. L (Solid State Electron. 15 [1972] 659/63 from C.A. 77 [1972] No. 26225).Google Scholar
  200. [200]
    Takamatsu, A.; Tanigaki, Y.; Shibata, M.; Sakai, H. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–20374 [1987] from C.A. 106 [1987] No. 187545).Google Scholar
  201. [201]
    Blumenfeld, M. A. (Ger. Offen. 3007500 [1979/80]; C.A. 93 [1980] No. 229759).Google Scholar
  202. [202]
    Fujitsu Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–111030 [1980/82] from C.A. 97 [1982] No. 228591).Google Scholar
  203. [203]
    Yoshida, N. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–173332 [1988] from C.A. 109 [1988] No. 24256).Google Scholar
  204. [204]
    Ueda, S. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–155625 [1988] from C.A. 110 [1989] No. 49681).Google Scholar
  205. [205]
    Hitachi Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–74651 [1982/84] from C.A. 101 [1984] No. 121513).Google Scholar
  206. [206]
    NEC Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–232446 [1983/84] from C.A. 103 [1985] No. 15532).Google Scholar
  207. [207]
    Matsuzaki, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–93949 [1987] from C.A. 107 [1987] No. 50477).Google Scholar
  208. [208]
    Iannuzzi, M.; Kozakiewicz, R. P. (IEEE Trans. Compon. Hybrids Manuf.Technol. CHMT–5 [1982] 345/54; C.A. 100 [1984] No. 60162).Google Scholar
  209. [209]
    Iannuzzi, M. (IEEETrans. Compon. Hybrids Manuf. Technol. CHMT–6 [1983] 181/90; C.A. 100 [1984] No. 95123).Google Scholar
  210. [210]
    Mayumi, S. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–154646 [1987] from C.A. 108 [1988] No. 14938).Google Scholar
  211. [211]
    Nakamura, M.; Hirata, K.; Tanaka, E. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–194631 [1987] from C.A. 108 [1988] No. 30384).Google Scholar
  212. [212]
    Takov, T.; Takova, S.; Petkov, V. (Elektroprom. Priborostr. 17 [1982] 536/9 from C.A. 99 [1983] No. 46499).Google Scholar
  213. [213]
    Dallmann, A.; Menzel, G.; Weyl, R.; Fox, F. (Annu. Proc. Reliab. Phys. Symp. 23 [1985] 224/7 from C.A. 104 [1986] No. 80130).Google Scholar
  214. [214]
    Pollack, G. P.; Richardson, W. F.; Malhi, S. D. S.; Bonifield, T.; Shichijo, H.; Banerjee, S.; Elahy, M.; Shah, A. H.; Womack, R.; Chatterjee, P. K. (IEEE Electron Device Letters EDL–5 [1984] 468/70; C.A. 101 [1984] No. 220665).Google Scholar
  215. [215]
    Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–95829 [1981/83] from CA. 99 [1983] No. 150670).Google Scholar
  216. [216]
    Peyre-Lavigne, A. (Fr. Demande 2466859 [1979/81] from CA. 96 [1982] No. 27440).Google Scholar
  217. [217]
    Ono, M.; Momi, T. (U.S. 3645807 [1972]; CA. 76 [1972] No. 133319).Google Scholar
  218. [218]
    Heinrich, R.; Schwensow, P.; Titze, J.; Zachaeus, J. (Ger. [East] 225547 [1985]; CA. 104 [1986] No. 100682).Google Scholar
  219. [219]
    Fujitsu Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 55–87443 [1978/80] from CA. 93 [1980] No. 249011).Google Scholar
  220. [220]
    Randolph, M.; Meiners, L. G. (J. Electrochem. Soc. 136 [1989] 2699/705).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. [221]
    Yashiro, T.; Nagai, H.; Yano, K. (Kenkyu Jitsuyoka Hokoku Denki Tsushin Kenkyusho 20 [1971] 949/64 from CA. 75 [1971] No. 114034).Google Scholar
  222. [222]
    Utsunomiya, H.; Uchiyama, K.; Ishizaki, H.; Takayama, M. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–317942 [1987/88] from CA. 111 [1986] No. 123930).Google Scholar
  223. [223]
    Inoue, D.; Takano, S.; Nogawa, S.; Ohsuga, E.; Kaijo, E. (Shinku 32 [1989] 14/9 from CA. 111 [1989] No. 88626).Google Scholar
  224. [224]
    Takeoka, Y.; Iida, A. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 01–033743 [1987/89] from CA. 111 [1989] No. 184278).Google Scholar
  225. [225]
    Uchiyama, K.; Ishikazi, H.; Takayama, M. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–222345 [1987/88] from CA. 110 [1989] No. 183090).Google Scholar
  226. [226]
    Morris, G.; Higgins, V.; Hall, G.; Anand, Y.; Bilotta, R.; Jellison, F. (IEEE MIT-S Intern. Microwave Symp. Dig. 1979 243/8; CA. 91 [1979] No. 221223).Google Scholar
  227. [227]
    Donzelli, G. P.; Gabbrielli, B. (Appl. Surf. Sci. 30 [1987] 95/9; CA. 108 [1988] No. 14594).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. [228]
    Hamada, H. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–73335 [1986] from CA. 105 [1986] No. 163281).Google Scholar
  229. [229]
    Mizuno, H. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–296567 [1987] from CA. 108 [1988] No. 141679).Google Scholar
  230. [230]
    Nippon Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–178571 [1982/83] from CA. 100 [1984] No. 78416).Google Scholar
  231. [231]
    Eshita, T.; Furumura, Y.; Mieno, F.; Nakazawa, T. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–300511 [1987/88] from CA. 111 [1989] No. 88822).Google Scholar
  232. [232]
    Dumas, J. M.; Gauneau, M.; Lecrosnier, D.; Bresse, J. F. (Insul. Films Semicond. Proc. Intern. Conf. INFOS 85, Toulouse 1985 [1986], pp. 75/9; CA. 104 [1986] No. 160318).Google Scholar
  233. [233]
    Dumas, J. M.; Lecrosnier, G.; Bresse, J. F. (Annu. Proc. Reliab. Phys. Symp. 23 [1985] 39/44; CA. 104 [1986] No. 80122).Google Scholar
  234. [234]
    Kretschmer, K. H.; Hartnagel, H. L. (Annu. Proc. Reliab. Phys. Symp. 25 [1987] 102/6; CA. 108 [1988] No. 214660).Google Scholar
  235. [235]
    Alnot, P.; Olivier, J.; Wyczisk, F.; Peray, J. F.; Joubart, R. (Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 98 [1987] 279/84; CA. 108 [1988] No. 230221).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. [236]
    Alnot, P.; Olivier, J.; Wyczisk, F.; Peray, J. F. (Vide Couches Minces 41 [1986] 185/6; CA. 105 [1986] No. 33680).Google Scholar
  237. [237]
    Dartyge, E.; Fontaine, A.; Jucha, A.; Tourillon, G.; Peray, J. F.; Joubart, R.; Alnot, P. (J. Phys. Colloq. [Paris] 47 [1986] C8–415/C8–418).Google Scholar
  238. [238]
    Bayraktaroglu, B.; Theis, W. M.; Schuermeyer, F. L. (Conf. Ser. Inst. Phys. No. 50 [1980] 280/6; CA. 93 [1980] No. 124531).Google Scholar
  239. [239]
    Schnell, R. D.; Schink, H. (J. Appl. Phys. 26 Pt. 2 [1987] L1583/L1586).Google Scholar
  240. [240]
    Gourrier, S.; Theeten, J. B. (Fr. Demande 2571542 [1986] from CA. 105 [1986] No. 125515).Google Scholar
  241. [241]
    Tenedorio, J. G.; Terzian, P. A. (IEEE Electron Device Letters EDL–5 [1984] 199/202; CA. 100 [1984] No. 219865).Google Scholar
  242. [242]
    Hartnagel, H. L; Schuetz, R.; Wuerfl, J. (DVS Ber. No. 110 [1988] 52/3 from CA. 109 [1988] No. 84248).Google Scholar
  243. [243]
    Sawada, M. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–15426 [1988] from CA. 109 [1988] No. 46984).Google Scholar
  244. [244]
    Pasqualini, F. (Vide Couches Minces 41 [1986] 197/9; CA. 105 [1986] No. 33681).Google Scholar
  245. [245]
    Ikeda, K.; Watase, M. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 01–124222 [1989] from CA. 111 [1989] No. 185719).Google Scholar
  246. [246]
    Hitachi Ltd. (Brit. 1 291002 [1970/72]; CA. 77 [1972] No. 157917).Google Scholar
  247. [247]
    Kember, P. N.; Astell-Burt, P. (Vide Couches Minces 41 [1986] 187/8; CA. 105 [1986] No. 33862).Google Scholar
  248. [248]
    Sugimoto, Y. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–271844 [1986] from CA. 106 [1987] No. 187555).Google Scholar
  249. [249]
    Parguel, V. (Vide Couches Minces 41 [1986] 207/8; CA. 105 [1986] No. 33683).Google Scholar
  250. [250]
    Kitagawa, T.; Hasegawa, H.; Ohno, H. (Electron. Letters 21 [1985] 299/301; CA. 102 [1985] No. 213398).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. [251]
    Oosaka, S.; Matsunaga, Y. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 01–077942 [1987/89] from CA. 111 [1989] No. 107217).Google Scholar
  252. [252]
    Lee, D. H.; Li, S. S.; Lee, S.; Ramaswamy, R. V. (IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED–35 [1988] 1695/9; CA. 109 [1988] No. 202667).Google Scholar
  253. [253]
    Unterboersch, G.; Bach, H. G.; Schmitt, F.; Schmidt, R.; Schlaak, W. (Appl. Surf. Sci. 30 [1987] 76/82; CA. 108 [1988] No. 29166).Google Scholar
  254. [254]
    Renaud, J. C; Dimitriou, P.; Blanconnier, P.; Scavennec, A. (Vide Couches Minces 41 [1986] 195/6; CA. 105 [1986] No. 33768).Google Scholar
  255. [255]
    Barrier, J.; Renaud, M.; Boher, P.; Schneider, J. (J. Phys. Colloq. [Paris] 49 [1988] C4–227/C4–230; CA. 109 [1988] No. 241891).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. [256]
    Nomura, K.; Terauchi, M.; Ogawa, K.; Abe, A. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–274367 [1986] from CA. 106 [1987] No. 147906).Google Scholar
  257. [257]
    Bourdon, B.; Blanjot, C (Vide Couches Minces 41 [1986] 193/4; CA. 105 [1986] No. 32663).Google Scholar
  258. [258]
    Kato, S. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 54–103795 [1978/79] from CA. 92 [1980] No. 155912).Google Scholar
  259. [259]
    Kishi, S. (Denki Kagaku 41 [1973] 487/90 from CA. 80 [1974] No. 64891).Google Scholar
  260. [260]
    Anderson, R. E. (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS–26 [1979] 5180/4; CA. 92 [1980] No. 103073).Google Scholar
  261. [261]
    Kasama, K.; Tsukiji, M.; Kobayashi, K. (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS–34 Pt. 6 [1987] 1202/7; CA. 108 [1988] No. 86246).Google Scholar
  262. [262]
    Condito, V.; Lambert, N.; Schwartz, T. J.; Dodge, S. (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS–28 [1981] 4325/7; CA. 96 [1982] No. 209049).Google Scholar
  263. [263]
    Sabnis, A. G. (IEEETrans. Nucl. Sci. NS–32 [1985] 3905/10; CA. 104 [1986] No. 120770).Google Scholar
  264. [264]
    Miyazaki, S. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–235429 [1985] from CA. 104 [1986] No. 160586).Google Scholar
  265. [265]
    Mori, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Shimaya, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Nakada, T.; Kojima, H. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–2231132 [1985] from CA. 104 [1986] No. 160542).Google Scholar
  266. [266]
    NEC Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–107837 [1985] from CA. 104 [1986] No. 13707).Google Scholar
  267. [267]
    Shiono, N. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–187344 [1986] from CA. 106 [1987] No. 42578).Google Scholar
  268. [268]
    Takeuchi, T. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–193342 [1985] from CA. 104 [1986] No. 121126).Google Scholar
  269. [269]
    Yamaguchi, T.; Matsumoto, T. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–51832 [1986] from CA. 105 [1986] No. 16599).Google Scholar
  270. [270]
    Allen, B. L; Gwozdz, P. S.; Bowers, T. R. (Eur. Appl. 281324 [1988]; C.A. 110 [1989] No. 49748).Google Scholar
  271. [271]
    Tang, F.; Tang, B. (He Dianzixue Yu Tance Jishu 4 [1984] 226/30 from C.A. 101 [1984] No. 139474).Google Scholar
  272. [272]
    Coppage, F. N.; Graham, E. D., Jr. (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 19 [1972] 320/4; C.A. 78 [1973] No. 49710).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. [273]
    Coppage, F. N.; Graham, E. D., Jr. (SC-DC-721232 [1972] 1/19 from N.S.A. 26 [1972] No. 45662; C.A. 78 [1973] No. 23019).Google Scholar
  274. [274]
    Popescu, I. M.; Sachelarie, D.; Gatlan, D.; Sachelarie, M.; Dragan, M.; Stoica, M. (Rev. Roumaine Phys. 29 [1984] 751/6 from C.A. 102 [1985] No. 177365).Google Scholar
  275. [275]
    Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–140139 [1982/83] from C.A. 99 [1983] No. 223532).Google Scholar
  276. [276]
    Anami, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–51857 [1986] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 53128).Google Scholar
  277. [277]
    Brambilla, P.; Canali, C; Fantini, F.; Magistrali, F.; Mattana, G. (Microelectron. Reliab. 26 [1986] 365/84; C.A. 105 [1986] No. 33713).Google Scholar
  278. [278]
    Abe, M.; Mase, K.; Aoyama, M.; Yasujima, T. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–249333 [1985] from C.A. 104 [1986] No. 198329).Google Scholar
  279. [279]
    Miwa, M. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 62–293726 [1987] from C.A. 109 [1988] No. 46977).Google Scholar
  280. [280]
    Takiar, H. P.; George, T. (Ger. Offen. 3640249 [1987]; C.A. 107 [1987] No. 188952).Google Scholar
  281. [281]
    Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–231840 [1983/84] from C.A. 103 [1985] No. 15530).Google Scholar
  282. [282]
    Mukai, K.; Harada, S.; Muramatsu, S.; Hiraiwa, A.; Takahashi, A.; Usami, K.; Iwta, S.; Ito, S.; Yoshimi, T. (Brit. Appl. 2027273 [1978/80] from C.A. 93 [1980] No. 59678).Google Scholar
  283. [283]
    Nagano, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Ogawa, K.; Mori, M. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–183751 [1985] from C.A. 104 [1986] No. 121057).Google Scholar
  284. [284]
    Heid, K. (Proc. Electron. Compon. Conf. 27 [1977] 68/71; C.A. 89 [1978] No. 207749).Google Scholar
  285. [285]
    Shimizu, G. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63–308323 [1987/88] from C.A. 110 [1989] No. 223923).Google Scholar
  286. [286]
    Shaw, R. R. (South African 69–7232 [1970]; C.A. 73 [1970] No. 114441).Google Scholar
  287. [287]
    Fuis, E. N.; MacArthur, D. M. (Ann. Proc. Reliab. Phys. Symp. 12 [1974] 299/303; C.A. 82 [1975] No. 67179).Google Scholar
  288. [288]
    Harajiri, S.; Kondo, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–79233 [1986] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 144534).Google Scholar
  289. [289]
    Nakano, A.; Yabu, T.; Shirai, K.; Sugaya, S.; Hashimoto, K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 61–97839 [1986] from C.A. 105 [1986] No. 163341).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eberhard F. Krimmel
    • 1
  • Rudolf Hezel
    • 2
  • Uwe Nohl
    • 3
  • Rainer Bohrer
    • 3
  1. 1.Universität Frankfurt/MainGermany
  2. 2.Universität ErlangenNürnbergGermany
  3. 3.Gmelin InstituteFrankfurt/MainGermany

Personalised recommendations