Advertisement

Si Silicon pp 321-362 | Cite as

Application of Silicon Nitride for Solar Cells

  • Eberhard F. Krimmel
  • Rudolf Hezel
  • Uwe Nohl
  • Rainer Bohrer
Chapter
Part of the Si. Silicium. Silicon (System-Nr. 15) book series (GMELIN, volume S-i / B / 1-5 / 5 / c)

Abstract

Silicon nitride is widely known for its application in integrated circuit technology as encapsulation material, as interlevel insulator for multilevel metallization, as gate dielectric for field effect transistors including memory devices, as a mask for oxidation, diffusion or ion implantation, for selective etching, and as a capping layer for compound semiconductors. Most of these applications are due to the fact that silicon nitride is an excellent diffusion barrier and a gettering and passivating agent regardless how the films are prepared, whether by atmospheric pressure (APCVD), low pressure (LPCVD), or plasma-enhanced (PECVD) chemical vapor deposition, by sputtering, or by electron-beam evaporation, only to mention a few preparation techniques [1 to 3]. PECVD silicon nitride, in the literature often also just named “plasma” silicon nitride, is in many cases just labeled “pd(PD)” silicon nitride throughout this Chapter 32.

Keywords

Solar Cell Silicon Nitride Inversion Layer Nitride Film Antireflection Coating 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Sze, S. M. (VLSI Technology, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York 1988, pp. 1/676, 260, 469, 501).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Sze, S. M. (Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed., Wiley, New York 1981, pp. 1/868, 393, 504, 852).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Belyi, V. I.; Vasilyeva, L L; Ginovker, A. S.; Gritsenko, V. A.; Repinsky, S. M.; Sinitsa, S. P.; Smirnova, T. P.; Edelman, F. L. (Mater. Sei. Monogr. 1988 1/263, 34).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Sabisky, W. S.; Stone, J. L. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 20 [1988] 39).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Tsuda, S.; Nakamura, N.; Nakashima, Y.; Tarui, H.; Nishiwaki, H.; Ohnishi, M.; Kuwano, Y. (Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 21 Suppl. 2 [1982] 251/7; C.A. 98 [1983] No. 129230).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Tsuda, S.; Tarui, H.; Ohnishi, M.; Sakai, S.; Uchihashi, K.; Matsuoka, T.; Nakano, S.; Kiyama, S.; Kawata, H.; Kuwano, Y. (J. Non-Cryst. Solids 59/60 [1983] 1135/8).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Kurata, H.; Hirose, M.; Osaka, Y. (Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 20 [1981] L811/L813).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Wong, B.; Morel, D. L; Grosvenor, V. G. (Tech. Digest 1st Intern. Photovoltaic Sei. Eng. Conf., Kobe, Japan, 1984, pp. 433/6; C.A. 103 [1985] No. 90374).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    Chambouleyron, J.; Alvarez, F.; Constantino, C; Cisneros, J. I. (EUR-9007 [1983] 818/21; C.A. 101 [1984] No. 41000).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    Hamakawa, Y. (Oyo Butsuri 53 [1982] 863/4 from C.A. 101 [1984] No. 220394).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Stoica, T.; Popescu, C. (EUR-9007 [1983] 832/4; C.A. 101 [1984] No. 41003).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Kuwano, Y.; Tsuda, S.; Nakamura, N.; Nishikuni, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Takahama, T.; Isomura, M.; Nakano, S.; Ohnishi, M. (AIP Conf. Proc. No. 157 [1987] 126/33; C.A. 107 [1987] No. 158242).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Hasegawa, S.; Segawa, M.; Kurata, Y. (J. Appl. Phys. 64 [1988] 1931/8).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Hasegawa, S.; Tsukao, T.; Kurata, Y. (Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 25 [1986] L114/L116).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Hasegawa, S.; Segawa, M; Kurata, Y. (Appl. Phys. Letters 49 [1986] 1178/83).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Hasegawa, S.; Segawa, M.; Kurata, Y. (Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 25 [1986] L934/L936).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Yamasaki, S.; Matsuda, A.; Tanaka, K. (Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 21 [1982] L789/L791).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Watanabe, H.; Katoh, K.; Yasni, M.; Shibata, Y. (J. Non-Cryst. Solids 59/60 [1983] 605/8).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Watanabe, H.; Katoh, K.; Yasni, M. (Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 21 [1982] L341/L343).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Matsuda, A.; Matsumura, M.; Yamasaki, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Imura, T.; Okushi, H.; Iizima, S.; Tanaka, K. (Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 20 [1981] L183/L186).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Madan, A. (Eur. Appl. 93514 [1982/83]; C.A. 100 [1984] No. 54598).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Abeles, B.; Tiedje, T. (Phys. Rev. Letters 51 [1983] 2003/6).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Kakalios, J.; Fritzsche, H.; Ibaraki, N.; Ovshinsky, S. R. (J. Non-Cryst. Solids 66 [1984] 339/44).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Green, M. A. (Solar Cells, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1982, pp. 1/274).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Baraona, C. R.; Brandhorst, H. W. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 11 [1975] 1/256, 44/8; C.A. 89 [1978] No. 92276).Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Arndt, R. A.; Allison, J. F.; Haynos, J. G.; Meulenberg, A. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 11 [1975] 40/3; C.A. 89 [1978] No. 92275).Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Sopori, B. L; Pryor, R. A. (Solar Cells 8 [1983] 249/61; C.A. 98 [1983] No. 218856).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Sopori, B. L.; Pryor, R. A. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 15 [1981] 466/72; C.A. 96 [1982] No. 107127).Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Heavens, O. S. (Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films, Dover, New York, 1966, pp. 1/261,46).Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    Jellison, G. E., Jr.; Wood, R. F. (Solar Cells 18 [1986] 93/114; C.A. 106 [1987] No. 53165).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Sexton, F. W. (Solar Energy Mater. 7 [1982] 1/14; C.A. 97 [1982] No. 130536).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Stein, H. J.; Wells, V. A.; Hampy, R. E. (J. Electrochem. Soc. 126 [1979] 1750/4).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Sinha, A. K.; Levinstein, H.J.; Smith, T. E.; Quintana, G.; Haszko, S. E. (J. Electrochem. Soc. 125 [1978] 601/8).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Shibata, N. (Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 27 [1988] 480/4).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Olsen, L. C. (DOE-JPL-956614 [1986] 134 pp.; C.A. 109 [1988] No. 95946).Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Philipp, H. R. (EMIS Data Reviews Series No. 4 INSPEC [1988] 1029/36).Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Fossum, J. G.; Nasby, R. D.; Burgess, E. L. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 13 [1978] 1294/9; C.A. 90 [1979] No. 106887).Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Green, M. A.; Blakers, A. W.; Shi, J.; Keller, E. M.; Wenham, S. R. (Appl. Phys. Letters 44 [1984] 1163/4).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Stanbery, B. J.; Chen, W. S.; Mickelsen, R. A.; Collins, G. J.; Emery, K. A.; Rocca, J. J.; Thompson, L R. (Solar Cells 14 [1985] 289/91; C.A. 103 [1985] No. 198515).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Turner, G. W.; Fan, J. C. C; Hsieh, J. J. (Appl. Phys. Letters 37 [1980] 400/2).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Johnson, C. C; Wydeven, T. (Solar Energy 31 [1983] 355/8; C.A. 99 [1983] No. 125605).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Tiedje, J. T.; Abeles, B. (Eur. Appl. 173566 [1984/85]; C.A. 105 [1988] No. 53185).Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Guo, L; Zhu, C; Liu, E. (Taiyangneng Xuebao [Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica] 7 [1986] 385/93; CA. 106 [1987] No. 123064).Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Ganru, M.; Yuan, X.; Shitin, Z. (Proc. 2nd Photovoltaic Sei. Eng. Conf., Beijing 1986, pp. 234/6).Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Yuan, X.; Mao, G.; Guo, W. (Taiyangneng Xuebao [Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica] 8 [1987] 277/81; CA. 108 No. 78635).Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    Jia, Q.; Zhu, C; Liu, E. (Proc. 2nd Intern. Photovoltaic Sei. Eng. Conf., Beijing 1986, pp. 223/6).Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Green, M. A. (Trans. Tech. Publ. Switzerland 1986 1/300).Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    Liu, E.; Jia, Q. (Dianzi Kexue Xuekan [J. Electronics] 10 [1988] 285/8; CA. 109 [1988] No. 234119).Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    Toshiba Corp.; Toshiba Battery Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–150483 [1983/84] from CA. 102 [1985] No. 28471).Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    King, R. R.; Sinton, R. A.; Swanson, R. M. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 19 [1987] 1168/73; CA. 109 [1988] No. 113353).Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    Arora, J. D.; Singh, S. N.; Mathur, P. C (Solid State Electron. 24 [1981] 739/47; CA. 95 [1981] No. 189998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Morita, H.; Sato, A.; Washida, H.; Kato, T.; Onoe, A. (Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 21 Suppl. 2 [1982] 47/51; CA. 98 [1983] No. 146551).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    Green, M. A.; Wenham, S. R.; Blakers, A. W. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 19 [1987] 6/12; CA. 109 [1988] No. 131959).Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    Lanford, W. A.; Rand, M. J. (J. Appl. Phys. 49 [1978] 2473/7).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    Hezel, R.; Jaeger, K. (J. Electrochem. Soc. 136 [1989] 518/23).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    Kato, T.; Morita, H.; Sato, A.; Washida, H.; Onoe, A.; Fujimoto, F.; Komaki, K.; Ootuka, A.; Iwata, Y. (Proc. Electrochem. Soc. 83–11 [1983] 255/65; CA. 99 [1983] No. 161457).Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    Shirasawa, K.; Okada, K.; Fukui, K.; Hirose, M.; Yamashita, H.; Watanabe, H. (Proc. 3rd Photovoltaic Sei. Eng. Conf., Tokyo 1987, pp. 97/100).Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    Kimura, K. (Tech. Digest 1st Intern. Photovoltaic Sei. Eng. Conf., Kobe, Japan, 1984, pp. 37/42; CA. 103 [1985] No. 90340).Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    Shirasawa, K.; Yamashita, H.; Fukui, K.; Takayama, M.; Okada, K.; Masuri, K.; Watanabe, H. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 21 [1990] 668/73).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    Green, M. A.; Blakers, A. W.; Wenham, S. R. (Proc. 9th E.C Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., Freiburg 1989, pp. 301/4).Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    Hezel, R.; Jaeger, K. (Proc. 2nd Intern. Photovoltaic Sei. Eng. Conf., Beijing 1986, pp. 230/3).Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    Jaeger, K.; Hezel, R. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 19 [1987] 388/91; CA. 109 [1988] No. 58143).Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    Hezel, R.; Jaeger, K. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 20 [1988] 1560/4).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. [64]
    Pulfrey, D. L. (IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-25 [1978] 1308/17; CA. 90 [1979] No. 41 238).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. [65]
    Godfrey, R. G.; Green, M. A. (Appl. Phys. Letters 34 [1979] 860/1).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. [66]
    Myszkowski, A.; Sansores, L. E.; Taguena-Martinez, J. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 15 [1981] 1294/301; CA. 96 [1982] No. 146041).Google Scholar
  67. [67]
    Charlson, E. J.; Richardson, W. F. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 13 [1978] 656/60; CA. 91 [1979] No. 178046).Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    Hezel, R.; Meisel, T.; Streb, W. (J. Appl. Phys. 56 [1984] 1756/61).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. [69]
    Liu, E.; Jia, Q.; Liu, X.; Sun, Y.; Zhang, S. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 19 [1987] 382/7; CA. 109 [1988] No. 131994).Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    Salter, G. C; Thomas, R. E. (Solid State Electron. 20 [1977] 95/104; C.A. 86 [1977] No. 142883).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. [71]
    Hezel, R. (Solid State Electron. 24 [1981] 863/8; C.A. 95 [1981] No. 222828).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. [72]
    Hezel, R.; Schörner, R. (J. Appl. Phys. 52 [1981] 3076/9).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. [73]
    Hezel, R. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 16 [1982] 1237/42; C.A. 103 [1985] No. 8911).Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    Hezel, R. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 18 [1985] 180/5; C.A. 105 [1986] No. 229825).Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    Jaeger, K.; Hezel, R. (IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-32 [1985] 1824/9; C.A. 103 [1985] No. 180914).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. [76]
    Hezel, R. (Springer Ser. Electrophys. 7 [1981] 219/23; C.A. 96 [1982] No. 9402).Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    Frohmann-Bentchkowsky, D.; Lenzlinger, M. (J. Appl. Phys. 40 [1969] 3307/19).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. [78]
    Hezel, R.; Blumenstock, K.; Schörner, R. (J. Electrochem. Soc. 131 [1984] 1679/83).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. [79]
    Goetzberger, A.; Heine, V.; Nicollian, E. H. (Appl. Phys. Letters 12 [1968] 95/7).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. [80]
    Hezel, R.; Jaeger, K. (Solid State Electron. 26 [1983] 993/7; C.A. 99 [1983] No. 198005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. [81]
    Sun, S. C; Rummer, J. D. (IEEE J. Solid State Circuits SC-15 [1980] 562/73; C.A. 93 [1980] No. 229217, see also: IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-27 [1980] 1497/508; C.A. 93 [1980] No. 196079).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. [82]
    Wang, H.; Liu, E.; Zhang, S. (Taiyangneng Xuebao [Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica] 8 [1987] 28/35; C.A. 107 [1987] No. 61942).Google Scholar
  83. [83]
    Hezel, R.; Hu, L; Jaeger, K. (Proc. 4th Intern. Photovoltaic Sei. Eng. Conf., Sydney 1989, pp. 707/12).Google Scholar
  84. [84]
    Hezel, R. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 21 [1990] 239/44).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. [85]
    Bauch, W.; Jaeger, K.; Hezel, R. (Appl. Surf. Sei. 39 [1989] 356/63; C.A. 112 [1990] No. 46705).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. [86]
    Goetzberger, A.; Klausmann, E.; Schulz, M. J. (CRC Crit. Rev. Solid State Sei. 6 No. 1 [1976] 1/43; C.A. 84 [1976] No. 188031).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. [87]
    Gruenbaum, P. E.; Sinton, P. A.; Swanson, R. M. (Appl. Phys. Letters 52 [1988] 1407/9).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. [88]
    Bauch, W.; Hezel, R. (Proc. 9th E. C. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., Freiburg 1989, pp. 390/3).Google Scholar
  89. [89]
    Cheng, Y.; Mao, G.; Guo, W. (Taiyangneng Xuebao [Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica] 9 [1988] 196/204; C.A. 109 [1988] No. 234118).Google Scholar
  90. [90]
    Hoffmann, W.; Jaeger, K.; Hezel, R. (Proc. 4th Intern. Photovoltaic Sei. Eng. Conf., Sydney 1989, pp. 725/30).Google Scholar
  91. [91]
    Hoffmann, W.; Jaeger, K.; Luthardt, G.; Hezel, R. (Proc. 9th E. C. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., Freiburg 1989, pp. 677/9).Google Scholar
  92. [92]
    Liu, X.; Jia, Q.; Liu, E. (Solar Energy Mater. 17 [1988] 257/63; C.A. 109 [1988] No. 25227).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. [93]
    Liu, X.; Liu, E.; Jia, Q. (Taiyangneng Xuebao [Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica] 9 [1988] 128/33; C.A. 109 [1988] No. 234116).Google Scholar
  94. [94]
    Hezel, R. (Tech. Digest 1st Intern. Photovoltaic Sei. Eng. Conf., Kobe, Japan, 1984, pp. 145/8; C.A. 103 [1985] No. 73817).Google Scholar
  95. [95]
    Schörner, R.; Hezel, R. (IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED-28 [1981] 1466/9; C.A. 96 [1982] No. 220507).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. [96]
    Kirpatenko, L. T.; Shmyreva, A. N. (Geliotekhnika 22 No. 3 [1986] 13/7; C.A. 105 [1986] No. 118094).Google Scholar
  97. [97]
    Burte, E. P.; Hezel, R. (J. Appl. Phys. 55 [1984] 1183/7).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. [98]
    Hokuyo, S. (Ger. Offen. 3819671 [1987/89]; C.A. 110 [1989] No. 196392).Google Scholar
  99. [99]
    Turner, G. W.; Connors, M. K. (J. Electrochem. Soc. 131 [1984] 1211/3).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. [100]
    Mitsui, K.; Yoshida, S.; Oda, T.; Yukimoto, Y.; Shirahata, K. (Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 20 Suppl. 2 [1980] 99/103; CA. 96 [1982] No. 220518).Google Scholar
  101. [101]
    Tekeuchi, Y.; Mori, M.; Maekawa, K.; Nishizawa, T. (Ger. Offen. 3334316 [1982/84]; CA. 101 [1984] No. 26194).Google Scholar
  102. [102]
    Surek, T.; Ariotedjo, A. P.; Cheek, G. C; Hardy, R. W.; Milstein, J. B.; Tsuo, Y. S. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 15 [1981] 1251/60; CA. 96 [1982] No. 88407).Google Scholar
  103. [103]
    Goetzberger, A.; Räuber, A. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 20 [1988] 1371/4).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. [104]
    Hide, J.; Yokoyama, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Suzuki, M.; Maeda, Y. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 20 [1988] 1400/4).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. [105]
    Yokoyama, T.; Hide, J.; Sawaya, T.; Matsuyama, T.; Maeda, Y. (Conf. Rec. IEEE Photovoltaic Special. Conf. 15 [1985] 1074/7; CA. 105 [1986] No. 211 759).Google Scholar
  106. [106]
    Putney, Z. C; Regnault, W. F. (Eur. 73938 [1981/83]; CA. 98 [1983] No. 225777).Google Scholar
  107. [107]
    Schwirtlich, J.; Woditsch, P. (Ger. Appl. 3419137 [1984/85]; CA. 104 [1986] No. 60606).Google Scholar
  108. [108]
    Saito, T.; Shimura, A.; Ichikawa, S. (Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 21 Suppl. 2 [1982] 35/8; CA. 98 [1983] No. 146548).Google Scholar
  109. [109]
    Sedgwick, T. O.; Geiss, R. H.; Depp, S. W.; Hanchett, V. E.; Huth, B. G.; Graf, V.; Silvestri, V. J. (J. Electrochem. Soc. 129 [1982] 2802/8).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. [110]
    Kondo, S.; Mizutani, H. (Eur. Appl. 276961 [1987/88]; CA. 109 [1988] No. 153115).Google Scholar
  111. [111]
    Semiconductor Energy Res. Inst. Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–160176 [1981/82] from CA. 98 [1983] No. 92695).Google Scholar
  112. [112]
    Semiconductor Energy Res. Inst. Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–160175 [1981/82] from CA. 98 [1983] No. 92696).Google Scholar
  113. [113]
    Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–61078 [1982/84] from CA. 101 [1984] No. 134105).Google Scholar
  114. [114]
    Toshiba Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–151070 [1982/83] from CA. 100 [1984] No. 37133).Google Scholar
  115. [115]
    Semiconductor Energy Res. Inst. Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–130482 [1981/82] from CA. 98 [1983] No. 45310).Google Scholar
  116. [116]
    Mitsubishi Electric Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–48476 [1981/83] from CA. 99 [1983] No. 56521).Google Scholar
  117. [117]
    Sharp Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–35553 [1985] from CA. 103 [1985] No. 39902).Google Scholar
  118. [118]
    Toshiba Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–28277 [1985] from CA. 103 [1985] No. 24992).Google Scholar
  119. [119]
    Nippondenso Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–184574 [1983/84] from CA. 102 [1985] No. 152214).Google Scholar
  120. [120]
    Japan Solar Energy K. K. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–220477 [1982/83] from CA. 100 [1984] No. 159543).Google Scholar
  121. [121]
    Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–158572 [1983/84] from CA. 102 [1985] No. 64955).Google Scholar
  122. [122]
    Toshiba Corp.; Toshiba Battery Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–150483 [1983/84] from CA. 102 [1985] No. 28471).Google Scholar
  123. [123]
    Agency of Industrial Sciences and Technology (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–112660 [1982/84] from CA. 101 [1984] No. 214042).Google Scholar
  124. [124]
    Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–23277 [1980/82] from CA. 96 [1982] No. 209301).Google Scholar
  125. [125]
    Ito, T. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 55–1133 [1978/80] from C.A. 92 [1980] No. 183686).Google Scholar
  126. [126]
    Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corp. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–232477 [1983/84] from C.A. 103 [1985] No. 15579).Google Scholar
  127. [127]
    Fuji Electric Research Laboratory (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 59–55080 [1982/84] from C.A. 101 [1984] No. 82671).Google Scholar
  128. [128]
    Semiconductor Energy Res. Inst. Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 58–164221 [1982/83] from C.A. 99 [1983] No. 223617).Google Scholar
  129. [129]
    Semiconductor Energy Res. Inst. Co., Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 57–67009 [1980/82] from C.A. 97 [1982] No. 95547).Google Scholar
  130. [130]
    Hitachi Ltd. (Japan. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 60–5510 [1985] from C.A. 103 [1985] No. 31175).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eberhard F. Krimmel
    • 1
  • Rudolf Hezel
    • 2
  • Uwe Nohl
    • 3
  • Rainer Bohrer
    • 3
  1. 1.Universität Frankfurt/MainGermany
  2. 2.Universität ErlangenNürnbergGermany
  3. 3.Gmelin InstituteFrankfurt/MainGermany

Personalised recommendations