Advertisement

Analysis of Seafood Aroma/Odour by Electronic Nose Technology and Direct Analysis

  • John M. Grigor
  • Brenden J. Theaker
  • Cesarettin Alasalvar
  • William T. O’Hare
  • Zulfiqur Ali
Chapter

Abstract

Volatile aroma compounds are generally regarded to be important parameters for determining the flavour quality and spoilage index in marine-based products. Although sensory assessment is desirable (provided it is carried out scientifically and correctly) it has limitations, including the study of flavour at the molecular level. Therefore an increasing emphasis has been placed on developing instrumentation and methods which can reliably identify and rapidly quantify key odourants in seafood, and studying how processing, abuse and storage can affect them. This chapter describes the major chemical classes of flavour compounds found in seafood and the methods available for their detection.

Keywords

Electronic Nose Volatile Aroma Compound Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal Salmon Fillet Electronic Nose System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Sloan AE, McNutt KW, Powers M (1986) Consumers’ attitudes about shelflife and technology. In: Charalambous G (ed) The shelflife of foods and beverages. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp 63–72Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Branch AC, Vail AMA (1985) Bringing fish inspection into the computer age. Food Technol Aust 37: 352–355Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Oehlenschlager J (1992) Evaluation of some well established and some underrated indices for the determination of freshness and/or spoilage of ice stored wet fish. In: Huss HH, Jakobsonen M, Liston J (eds) Quality assurance in the fish industry. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp 339–350Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stone H, Sidel JS, Oliver S, Woolsey A, Singleton RC (1974) Sensory evaluation by quantitative descriptive analysis. Food Technol 11: 24–34Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    British Standards Institute (1986) British standards methods for sensory analysis of foods. Part 4: flavour profile method. British standards Institution, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ryder JM (1985) Determination of ATP and its breakdown products in fish muscle by HPLC. J Agric Food Chem 33: 678–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Luong JHT, Male BK, Huynh MD (1991) Applications of polarography for assessment of fish freshness. J Food Sci 56: 335–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kryzmien M, Elias L, Sim PG (1992) Development of an instrumental approach to assessing fish freshness by headspace analysis for trimethylamine. In: Bligh EG (ed) Seafood science and technology. Fishing New Books ( Canadian Institute of Fisheries Technology ), Halifax, pp 216–224Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Olafsdottir G, Martinsdottir E, Oehlenschlager J, Dalgaard P, Jensen B, Undeland I, Mackie IM, Henehan G, Nielsen J, Nilsen H (1997) Methods to evaluate fish freshness in research and industry. Trends Food Sci Technol 8: 258–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pedrosa-Menabritto A, Regenstein JM (1990) Shelf-life extension of fresh fish - a review. Part III - fish quality and methods of assessment. J Food Qual 13: 209–223Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Rodriguez CJ, Villar-Estalote V, Besteiro I, Pascual C (1997) Biochemical indices of freshness during processing sardine for canning. In: Luten JP, Borresen T, Oehlenschlager (eds) Seafood from producer to consumer, integrated approach to quality. Elsevier Science Publishers, Oxford, pp 203–210Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wood R, Nilsson A, Wallin H (1998) Quality in the food analysis laboratory. Royal Society of Cambridge Publications, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Horwitz W (1982) Evaluation of analytical methods used for regulation of foods and drugs. Anal Chem 54: 67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Josephson DB, Lindsay RC, Stuiber DA (1984) Biogenesis of lipid-derived volatile aroma compounds in the Emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides). J Agric Food Chem 32: 13471352Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Josephson DB, Lindsay RC (1986) Enzymic generation of volatile aroma compounds from fresh fish. In: Parliment TH, Croteau R (eds) Biogeneration of aroma. ACS Symposium Series 317. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 201–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ashie INA, Smith JP, Simpson BK (1996) Spoilage and shelf-life extension of fresh fish and shellfish. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 36: 87–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ross DA, Love RM (1979) Decreased in the cold store flavour developed by frozen fillets of starved cod (Gadus morhua, L). J Food Technol 14: 115–122Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shankaranarayana ML, Raghaven B, Abraham KO, Natarajan CP (1989) Sulphur compounds in flavours. In: Morton ID, McLeod AJ (eds) Food flavours, part A. Elsevier Science Publishers, New York, pp 169–281Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Whitfield FB, Freeman DJ, Bannister PA (1981) Dimethyl trisulphide: an important off-flavour component in the royal red prawn. Chem Ind 10: 692–693Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kawai T (1996) Fish flavour. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 36: 257–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    McGill AS, Hardy R, Burt RJ, Gunstone FD (1974) Hept-cis-4-enal and its contribution to the off-flavour in cold stored cod. J Sci Food Agric 25: 1477–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    McGill AS, Hardy R, Gunstone FD (1977) Further analysis of the volatile components of frozen cold-stored cod and the influence of these on flavour. J Sci Food Agric 28: 200–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hofer T (1998) Tainting of seafood and marine pollution. Water Res 32: 3505–3512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Whitfield FB (1999) Biological origins of off-flavours in fish and crustaceans. Water Sci Technol 40: 265–272Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Whitfield FB, Last JH, Shaw KJ, Tindale CR (1988) 2,6-Dibromophenol: the cause of an iodoform-like off-flavour in some Australian crustacea. J Sci Food Agric 46: 29–42Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Persaud J, Dodd GH (1982) Analysis of discrimination mechanisms in the mammalian olfactory system using a model nose. Nature 299: 352–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gardner JW, Hines EL (1997) Pattern analysis techniques. In: Kress-Rogers E (ed) Handbook of biosensors and electronic noses: medicine, food and the environment. CRC Press, pp 633–652Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Schaller E, Bosettand JO, Escher F (1998) Electronic noses and their application to food. Lebensm-Wiss-Technol 31: 305–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dickinson TA, White J, Kauer JS, Waltz DR (1996) A chemical-detecting system based on cross-reactive optical sensor array. Nature 382: 697–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lonergan MC, Severin EJ, Doleman EJ, Beaber SA, Grubbs RH, Lewis NS (1996) Array-based vapour sensing using chemically sensitive, carbon-black polymer resistors. Chem Mater 8: 2298–2312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ali Z (1999) Acoustic wave mass sensors. J Therm Anal Calorim 55 (2): 397–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sauerbrey GZ (1959) Verwendung von schwingquarzen zur wägung dünner schichten and zur mikrowagung. Z Phys 155: 206–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Holmberg M, Winquist F, Lundstrom L, Gardner JW, Hines EL (1995) Identification of paper quality using a hybrid electronic nose. Sens Actuat B 246: 26–27Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bishop CM (1995) Neural networks for pattern recognition. OUPGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zadeh L (1965) Fuzzy sets. Inf Cont 8: 338–341Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yea B, Konishi R, Osaki T, Sugahara K (1994) The discrimination of many kinds of odour species using fuzzy reasoning and neural networks. Sens Actuat A 45: 159–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ali Z, O’Hare WT, Sarkodie-Gyan T, Theaker BJ (1999) Gas-sensing system using an array of coated quartz crystal microbalances with a fuzzy interference system. J Ther Anal Calorim 55 (2): 371–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ali Z, Theaker B, O’Hare WT, Rowell FJ, Sarkodie-Gyan T, Scott S (2000) Classification of fresh edible oils with piezoelectric quartz crystal based electronic nose. Seventh International Symposium Olfaction and Electronic Nose, ISOEN 2000, 20–24th July 2000, Brighton; to be published as book by Institute of PhysicsGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Shimizu Y, Takao Y, Egashira M (1988) Detection of freshness of fish by a semiconductive Ru/TiO2 sensor. J Electrochem Soc 135: 2539–2540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nanto H, Sokooshi H, Usuda T (1993) Smell sensor using aluminium-doped zinc oxide thin film prepared by sputtering technique. Sens Actuat B 10: 79–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Winquist F, Sundgren H, Lundström I (1995) A practical use of electronic noses: quality estimation of cod fillet bought over the counter. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Solid-Sate Sensors and Actuators, and Eurosensors IX. Stockholm, Sweden: June 25–29, 1995, pp 695–698Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Olafsson R, Martinsdottir E, ólafsdottir G, Sigfusson SI, Gardner JW (1992) Monitoring of fish freshness using tin oxide sensors. In: Gardner JW, Bartlett PN (eds) Sensors and sensory systems for an electronic nose. Kluwer, Dodrecht, The Netherlands, pp 257272Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Lindsay RC (1994) Flavour of fish. In: Shahidi F, Botta JR (eds) Seafoods: chemistry, processing technology and quality. Blackie Academic and Professional, Glasgow, UK, pp 75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Di Natale C, Brunink JAJ, Bungaro F, Davide F, D’Amico A, Paolesse R, Boschi T, Faccio M, Ferri G (1996) Recognition of fish storage time by a metalloporphyrins-coated QMB sensor array. Meas Sci Technol 7: 1103–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Luzuriaga DA, Balaban MO (1999) Electronic nose odour evaluation of salmon fillets stored at different temperatures. In: Hurst WJ (ed) Electronic noses and sensor array based systems-design and applications. Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, pp 162–169Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Newman DJ, Luzuriaga DA, Balaban MO (1999) Odour and microbiological evaluation of raw tuna: correlation of sensory and electronic nose data. In: Hurst WJ (ed) Electronic noses and sensor array based systems–design and applications. Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, pp 170–176Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wilkes JG, Conte ED, Yongkyoung K, Holcomb M, Sutherland JB, Miller DW (2000) Sample preparation for the analysis of flavours and off-flavours in foods. J Chromatogr A 880: 3–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bonilla M, Enriquez G, McNair HM (1997) Use of cold on-column injection for the analysis of putrescine and cadaverine by gas chromatography. J Chromatogr Sci 35: 53–56Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cadwallader KR, Macleod AJ (1998) Instrumental methods for analysing the flavour of muscle foods. In: Shahidi F (ed) Flavour of meat, meat products and seafoods. Blackie Academic and Professional, London, pp 355–372Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Cadwallader KR, Tan Q, Chen F, Meyers SP (1995) Evaluation of the aroma of cooked spiny lobster tail meat by aroma extract dilution analysis. J Agric Food Chem 43: 2432–2437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chung HY, Chen F, Cadwallader KR (1995) Cooked blue crab meat aroma compared with lump meat. J Food Sci 60: 289–291, 299Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Milo C, Grosch W (1997) Potent odourants in boiled cod as affected by the storage of raw material. In: Shahidi F, Cadwallader KR (eds) Flavour and lipid chemistry of seafoods. ACS Symposium Series 674, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 110–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cha YJ, Lee GH, Cadwallader KR (1997) Aroma-active compounds in salt-fermented anchovy. In: Shahidi F, Cadwallader KR (eds) Flavour and lipid chemistry of seafoods. ACS Symposium Series 674, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 131–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Etievant PX (1996) Artifacts and contaminants in the analysis of food flavour. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 36: 733–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hiatt M (1997) Analysis of fish tissue by vacuum distillation GC-MS. Anal Chem 69: 1127–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wampler TP (1997) Analysis of food volatiles using headspace-gas chromatographic techniques. In: Marsili R (ed) Techniques for analysing food aroma. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 27–58Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Alasalvar C, Quantick PC, Grigor JM (1997) Aroma compounds of fresh and stored mackerel (Scomber scombrus). In: Shahidi F, Cadwallader KR (eds) Flavour and lipid chemistry of seafoods. ACS Symposium Series 674. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 39–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Josephson DB, Lindsay RC, Stuiber DA (1984) Variations in the occurrences of enzymically derived volatile aroma compounds in salt and freshwater fish. J Agric Food Chem 32: 1344–1347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Alasalvar C, Aishima T, Quantick PC (1995) Dynamic headspace analysis of volatile aroma compounds of fresh and deteriorated mackerel (Scomber scombrus). Food Sci Technol Int, Tokyo 1: 125–127Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Josephson DB, Lindsay RC, ólafsdottir G (1987) Measurement of valatile aroma constituents as a means for following sensory deterioration of fresh fish and fishery products. In: Kramer DA, Liston J (eds) Seafood quality determination. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, pp 27–47Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Alasalvar C, Grigor JM, Quantick PC (1999) Methods for the static headspace analysis of carrot volatiles. Food Chem 65: 391–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zhang Z, Yang M, Pawliszyn J (1994) Solid-phase microextraction. Anal Chem 66: 844–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Harmon AD (1997) Solid-phase microextraction for the analysis of flavours. In: Marsili R (ed) Techniques for analysing food aroma. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 81–112Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Taylor AJ (1996) Volatile flavour release from foods during eating. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 36: 765–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Brauss M, Linforth R, Taylor A (1998) Effect of variety, time of eating and fruit to fruit variation on volatile release during eating of tomato fruits. J Agric Food Chem 46: 2287–2292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Taylor A, Linforth R (1996) Flavour release in the mouth. Trends Food Sci Technol 7: 444–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • John M. Grigor
  • Brenden J. Theaker
  • Cesarettin Alasalvar
  • William T. O’Hare
  • Zulfiqur Ali

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations