Klinisch-pharmakologische Grundlagen der Schmerztherapie

  • B. Roth
  • C. Hünseler
  • E. Michel
  • B. Zernikow

Zusammenfassung

Nozizeption ist bereits ab der 20.–22. Schwangerschaftswoche (SSW) möglich. Kortikale Schmerzverarbeitung geschieht ab der 24. Schwangerschaftswoche [291]. Dabei ist bei Früh- und Neugeborenen das zentrale Schmerzhemmungssystem deutlich schlechter ausgebildet als das nozizeptive System, sodass beim Früh- und Neugeborenen generell vom Überwiegen nozizeptiven Stresses auszugehen ist.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Adam D, Stankov G (1994) Treatment of fever in childhood. Eur J Pediatr 153:394–402PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adelmann C, Kribs A, Keuth B, Licht C, Roth B (1998) Doppelblinder, randominiserter Vergleich von Sufentanil und Fentanyl in der Analgosedierung beatmeter reifer Neugeborener mit schwerem Lungenversagen. Z. Geburtshilfe Neonat. 201 (S1): 9Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anand KJS, Hickey PR (1987) Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. N Engl J Med 317:1321–1329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anand KJS, Arnold JH (1994) Opioid tolerance and dependence in infants and children. Crit Care Med 22:334–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anand KJS, Mc Intosh N, Lagercrantz H, Pelausa E, Young TE, Vasa R (1999) Analgesia and sedation in preterm Neonates who require ventilatory support. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 153:331–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anderson BJ, Holford NHG (1997) Rectal paracetamol dosing regimes: determination by computer simulation. Paediatr Anaesth 7: 451–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aranda JV, Varvarigou A, Beharry K, Bansal R, Bardin C, Modanlou H, Papageorgiou A, Chemtob S (1997) Pharmacokinetics and protein binding of intravenous ibuprofen in the premature newborn infant. Acta Paediatr 86: 289–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arnold JH, Truog RD, Orav EJ, Scavone JM, Hershenon MB (1990) Tolerance and dependence in neonates sedated with fentanyl during extracorporal membrane oxygenation. Anesthesiology 73:1136–1140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arnold JH, Truog RD, Scavone JM, Fenton I (1991) Changes in the pharmacodynamic response to fentanyl in neonates during continuous infusion. J Pediatr 119: 639–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arnold JH, Truog RD (1992) Sedation in neonatal and pediatric intensive care. J Intens Care Med 7: 244–260Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Atwood GF, Evans MA, Harbinson RD (1976) Pharmacokinetics of meperidine in infants. Pediatr Res 10:328Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Babul N, Darke AC, Hain R (1995) Hydromor-phone and metabolite pharmacokinetics in children. J Pain Symptom Manage 10:335–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ball M, Moore RA, Fisher A, McQnay HJ, Allen MC, Seas J (1985) Renal failure and the use of morphine in intensive care. Lancet 1:784–786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Balogh A, Melzer K, Ziehl U, Finke G, Voigt L, Hoffmann A (1989) Elimination von Metamizol (Analgin) — Metaboliten im Kindesalter. Z Klin Med 44: 213–215Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Band CJ, Band PR, Deschamps M (1994) Human pharmacokinetic study of immediate-release (codeine phosphate) and sustained-release (codeine Contin) codeine. J Clin Pharmacol 34:938–943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Banos JE, Barajas C, Martin, ML et al. (1999) A survey of postoperative pain treatment in children of 3–14 years. Eur J Pain 3: 275–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Barker DP, Simpson J, Pawula M et al. (1995) Randomised, double blind trial of two loading dose regimes of diamorphine in ventilated newborn infants. Arch Dis Child 73: F22–F26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Barrett DA, Elias-Jones AC, Rutter N, Shaw PN, Davis SS (1991) Morphine kinetics after diamorphine infusion in premature neonates. Br J Clin Pharmacol 32:31–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baumert J (2000) Remifentanil in der Kinderanästhesie. 18. Internationales Aachener Anästhesie-Symposium (Vortrag). Aachen: März 2000Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Behm MO, Kearns GL (2001) Treatment of pain with gabapentin in a neonate. Pediatrics 108: 482–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bentley JB, Borel JA, Nenad RE, Gillespie TJ (1982) Age and fentanyl kinetics. Anesth Analg 61:968–971PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Berde CB, Holzman RS, Sethna NE A comparison of methadone and morphine for postoperative analgesia in children and adolescents. Anesthesiology 69: A768Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Berde CB, Beyer JE, Bournaki M-C, Levin CR, Sethna NF (1991) Comparison of morphine and methadone for prevention of postoperative pain in 3- to 7-year-old children. J Pediatr 119:136–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bhat R, Ghari G, Gulati A, Aldana O, Velamati R, Bhargava R (1990) Pharmacokinetics of a single dose of morphine in preterm infants during the first week of life. J Pediatr 117: 477–481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Birmingham PK, Tobin MJ, Henthorn TK et al. (1997) Twenty-four-hour pharmacokinetics of rectal acetaminophen in children. Anesthesiology 87: 244–252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bjorkman R, Hallman KM, Hedner J, Hedner T, Henning H (1994) Acetaminophen blocks spinal hyperalgesia induced by NMDA and substance P. Pain 57: 259–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Boas RA, Vilhinger JW (1985) Clinical actions of fentanyl and buprenorphin. The significance of receptor binding. Br J Anaesth 57: 192–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bovill JG, Sebel PS, Blackburn CL et al. (1984) The pharmacokinetics of sufentanil in surgical patients. Anesthesiology 61:502–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bovill JG (1987) Which potent opioid? Important criteria for selection. Drugs 33:520–530PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Buice RG, Cirpiano A (1999) Bioavailability of a controlled-release oxycodon product (Oxy-codon) and an immediate-release oxycodone product in pediatric patients. Abstract 246,9th World Congress on Pain, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bullingham RES, Mc Quay HJ, Moore A, Martin R, Bemiet D (1980) Buprenorphine kinetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther 28: 667–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bullingham RES, Mc Quay HJ, Porter EJB, McAllen C, Moore RA (1982) Sublingual buprenorphin used postoperatively: ten hour plasma drug concentration analysis. Br J Clin Pharmacol 13: 665–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bullingham RES, Mc Quay H, Moore RA (1983) Clinical pharmacokinetics of narcotic agonist-antagonist drugs. Clin Pharmacokin 8:332–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Burtin P, Daoud P, Jacqz-Aigrain E, Mussat P Moniette G (1991) Hypotension with midazolam and fentanyl in the newborn. Lancet 337: 1545–1546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Caldwell J, Notarianni LJ, Smith RL (1978a) Impaired metabolism of pethidin in the human neonate. Br J Clin Pharm 5:362–363Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Caldwell J, Wahile LA, Notariaumi LJ et al. (1978b) Maternal and neonatal disposition of pethidin in childbirth — a study using quantitative gas chromatography — mass spectrometry. Life Sci 22:589–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Carlsson K-H, Monzel W, Jurna I (1988) Depression by morphine and the non-opioid analgesic agents metamizol (dipyrone), lysine acetylsalicylate, and paracetamol, of activity in rat thalamus neurons evoked by electrical stimulation of nociceptive afferents. Pain 32: 313–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chana SK, Anand KJS (2001) Can we use methadone for analgesia in neonates? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 85: F79–F81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chay P W, Duffy BJ, Walker JS (1992) Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of morphine in neonates. Clin Pharmacol Ther 51:334–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chauvin M, Ferrier C, Haberer JP, Spielvogel C, Lebrault L, Levron IL, Deuvoldestin P (1989) Sufentanil pharmacokinetics in patients with cirrhosis. Anesth Analg 68:1–4PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Choonara I, Ekbom Y, Lindström B, Raue A (1990) Morphine sulphatation in children. Br J Clin Pharmacol 30: 897–900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Christensen ML, Wang WC, Harris S, Eades SK, Wilimas JA (1996) Transdermal fentanyl administration in children and adolescents with sickle cell pain crisis. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 18:372–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Collins C, Koren G, Crean P, Klein J, Roy WL, Laclerc SM (1985) Fentanyl pharmacokinetics and hemodynamic effects in preterm infants during ligation of patent ductus arteriosus. Anesth Analg 64:1078–1080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Collins JJ, Kerner J, Sentivany S, Berde CB (1995) Intravenous amitriptyline in pediatrics. J Pain Symptom Manage 10: 471–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Collins JJ, Geake J, Grier HE, Houck CS, Thaler HT, Weinstein HJ, Twum-Danso NY, Berde CB (1996) Patient-controlled analgesia for mucositis pain in children: a three-period crossover study comparing morphine and hydromorphone. J Pediatr 129: 722–728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Collins JJ, Dunkel IJ, Gupta SK, Inturrisi CE, Lapin J, Palmer LN, Weinstein SM, Portenoy RK (1999) Transdermal fentanyl in children with cancer pain: feasibility, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic correlates. J Pediatr 134: 319–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Crofford LJ (1997) Cox-1 and Cox-2 tissue expression: Implications and predictions. J Rheumatol 24 (S49): 15–19Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Dagan O, Klein J, Bohn D, Barker G, Kosen G (1993) Morphine pharmacokinetics in children following cardiac surgery: Effects of disease and inotropic support. Cardiothor Vasc Anesth 7:396–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dahlström B, Bolme P, Feychting H, Hoack G, Paalzow L (1979) Morphine kinetics in children. Clin Pharmacol Ther 26:354–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Davies G, Kingswood C, Street M (1996) Pharmacokinetics of opioids in renal dysfunction. Clin Pharmacokinet 31: 410–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Davies NM, Anderson KE (1997) Clinical pharmacokinetics of diclofenac. Therapeutic insights and pitfalls. Clin Pharmacokinet 33: 184–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Davies NM, McLachlan AJ, Day RO, Williams KM (2000) Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of celecoxib. Clin Pharmakokinet 38: 225–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Davis PJ, Cook DR, Stiller RL, Davis-Robinson KA (1987) Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of high-dose sufentanil in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 66: 203–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Davis PJ, Stiller RL, Cook DR, Brandow BW, Robinson KAD (1988) Pharmacokinetics of sufentanil in adolescent patients with chronic renal failure. Anesth Analg 67:268–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Davis PJ, Stiller RL, Cook DR, Brandom BW, Davis IE, Scierka AM (1989a) Effects of cholestatic hepatic disease and chronic renal failure on alfentanil pharmacokinetics in children. Anesth Analg 68: 579–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Davis PJ, Killian A, Stiller RL, Brandner BW, Davis JE, Scierka AM (1989b) Pharmacokinetics of alfentanil in newborn premature infants and older children. Dev Pharmacol Ther 13: 21–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Davis PJ, Ross A, Stiller RL, Muir K, McYowan FX, Gupta SK, Margolis J, Greely WJ (1995) Pharmacokinetics of remifentanil in anesthetized children 2–12 years of age. Anesth Analg 80: S93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Davis PJ, Ross AK, Henson LG, Muir KT (1997a) Remifentanil pharmacokinetics in neonates. Anesthesiology 87: A1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Davis PJ, Lermon J, Sunesh S et al. (1997b) A randomized multicenter study of remifentanil compared with alfentanil, isoflurane, or propofol in anesthetized pediatric patients undergoing elective strabismus surgery. Anesth Analg 84: 982–989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    De Souza G, Lewis MC, Ter Riet MF (1997) Severe bradycardia after remifentanil. Anesthesiology 87:1019–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Delbos A, Boccard E (1995) The morphine sparing effect of propacetamol in orthopedic postoperative pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 10:279–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Den Hollander JM, Hennies PJ, Burm AG, Bovill JG (1988) Alfentanil in infants and children with congenital heart defects. J Cardiothorac Anesth 2:12–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Den Hollander JM, Hennis PJ, Burm AG, Vierter AA, Bovill JG (1992) Pharmacokinetics of alfentanil before and after cardiopulmonary bypass in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery Part I. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 6:308–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dershwitz M, Rosow CE, Michalowski P, Connors PM, Hoke JF, Muir KT, Dienstag JL (1994) Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of remifentanil in volunteer subjects with severe liver disease compared with normal subjects. Anesthesiology 81: A377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Deutsch ES, Nadkarni VM (1996) Clonidine prophylaxis for narcotic and sedative withdrawal syndrome following laryngotracheal reconstruction. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 122:1234–1238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dewey WL (1984) Various factors which affect the rate of development of tolerance and physical dependence to abused drugs. NIDA Res Monogr 54:39–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dickenson AH (1995) Spinal cord pharmacology of pain. Br J Anaesth 75:193–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Don Brown R, Wilson JT, Kearns GL, Eichler VF, Johnson VA, Bertrand KM (1992) Single-dose pharmacokinetics of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in febrile children. J Clin Pharmacol 32: 231–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 68a.
    Dupuis LL, Koren G, Shore A, Silverman ED, Laxer RM (1990) Methotrexate-nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug interaction in children with arthritis. J Rheumatol 17:1469–1473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 69.
    Egan TD, Lemmens HJM, Fiset P, Herman DJ, Muir KT, Stanski DR, Shater SL (1993) The pharmacokinetics of the new short-acting opioid remifentanil (Gl 87084B) in healthy adult male volunteers. Anesthesiology 79: 881–892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Egan TD (1995) Remifentanil pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics — a preliminary appraisal. Clin Pharmacokinet 29: 80–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Ehrnebo M, Boreus LO, Lönroth U (1977) Bioavailability and first-pass metabolism of oral pentazocine in man. Clin Pharmacol Ther 22: 888–892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Elias-Jones AC, Barrett DA, Rutter N, Shaw PN, Davis SS (1991) Diamorphine infusion in the preterm neonate. Arch Dis Child 66: 1155–1157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    Faura CC, Collins SL, Moore RA, McQuay HJ (1998) Systematic review of factors affecting the ratios of morphine and its major metabolites. Pain 74:43–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Ferrier C, Marty J, Baufford N, Haberer Levron JC, Duvaldestin P (1985) Alfentanil pharmacokinetics in patients with cirrhosis. Anesthesiology 62: 480–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Filling-Katz MR, Merrick HF, Fink JK, Miles RB, Sokol J, Barton NW (1989) Carbamazepine in Fabry’s disease: effective analgesia with dose-dependent exacerbation of autonomic dysfunction. Neurology 39: 598–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Fitzgerald GA, Patrono C (2001) The Coxibs, selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2. N Engl J Med 345: 433–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Fitzgerald M Koltzenburg M (1986) The functional development of descending inhibitory pathways in the dorsolateral funiculus of the newborn rat spinal cord. Dev Brain Res 24: 261–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Fitzgerald M, Anand KJS (1993) Developmental neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of pain. In: Schechter NL, Berde CB, Yaster M (Hrsg) Pain in infants: children and adolescents. Williams & Wilkins: Baltimore, S 11–32Google Scholar
  80. 79.
    Forrest JB, Heitlinger EL, Reveil S (1997) Ketorolac for postoperative pain management in children. Drug Saf 16:309–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Franck LS, Miaskowski C (1998) The use of intravenous opioids to provide analgesia in critically ill premature neonates: A research critique. J Pain Symptom Manage 15: 41–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Freye E, Azevodo L, Hartung E (1985) Reversal of fentanyl related respiratory depression with nalbuphine: effects on the CO<sub>2</sub>-response curve in man. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 36:365–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Freye E (1989) Theoretische Grundlagen der Opioidanwendung im Neugeborenen- und Säuglingsalter. In: Ahnefeld FW, Altemeyer K-H, Försel T, Kraus G-B, Rügheimer E (Hrsg) Anästhesie bei Früh- und Neugeborenen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokio, S 161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Frisk-Holmberg M, Paalzow L, Edlund PO (1981). Clonidine kinetics in man — evidence for dose dependency and changed pharmacokinetics during chronic therapy. Br J Clin Pharmacol 12: 653–658PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Gaudreault P, Guay J, Nicol O, Dupuis K (1988) Pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of intrarectal solution of acetaminophen. Can J Anaesth 35:149–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Gauntlett I S, Fisher DM, Hertzka RE, Kuhls E, Spellman MJ, Rudolph C (1988) Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in neonatal humans and lambs: effects of age. Anesthesiology 69: 683–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 86.
    Glare PA, Walsh TD (1991) Clinical pharmacokinetics of morphine. Ther Drug Monit 13: 1–23PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Gourlay GK, Kowalski SR, Plummer JL, Constins MJ, Armstrong PJ (1988) Fentanyl blood concentration-analgesic response relationship in the treatment of postoperative pain. Anesth Analg 67:329–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Goresky GV, Koren G, Sabourin MA, Sale JP, Strunin L (1987) The pharmacokinetics of alfentanil in children. Anesthesiology 67: 654–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Granry JC, Rod B, Monrigal JP, Merckx J, Berniere J, Jean N, Boccard E (1997) The analgesic efficacy of an injectable prodrug of acetaminophen in children after orthopaedic surgery. Paediatr Anaesth 7: 445–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Grant IS, Nimmo WS, Clements JA (1981) Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of i.m. and oral ketamine. Br J Anaesth 53: 805–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Greely WJ, de Bruijn NP, Davis DP (1987) Sufentanil pharmacokinetics in pediatric cardiovascular patients. Anesth Analg 66: 1067–1072Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    Greely WJ, de Bruijn NP (1988) Changes in sufentanil pharmacokinetics within the neonatal period. Anesth Analg 67: 86–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Grießinger N, Rösch W, Schott G, Sittl R (1997) Tramadol-Infusion zur Schmerztherapie nach großen Blaseneingriffen auf Kinderstationen. Urologe 36:552–556PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 94.
    Guay J, Gaudreault P, Tang A, Goulet B, Varin F (1992) Pharmacokinetics of sufentanil in normal children. Can J Anaesth 39:14–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Gust R, Böhrer H (1995) Stiff-man syndrome associated with continous sufentanil administration. Anaesthesia 50:575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Haapasaari J, Woulijoki E, Ylijoki H (1983) Treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis with diclofenac sodium. Scand J Rheumatol 12:325–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Haeseler G, Zuzan O, Kohn G, Piepenbrock S, Leuwer M (2000) Anaesthesia with midazolam and S-(+)-ketamine in spontaneously breathing paediatric patients during magnetic resonance imaging. Paediatr Anaesth 10:513–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Hamunen K, Maunuksela E-L, Seppälä T, Olkkola KT (1993) Pharmacokinetics of i.v. and rectal pethidin in children undergoing ophthalmic surgery. Br J Anaesth 71: 823–826PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Hamunen K, Olkkola KT, Seppäla T, Lusa G, Maunuksela E-L (1993) Ventilatory effects and kinetics of intravenous pentazocine in children. Pharmacol Toxicol 73:120–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Hamunen K, Olkkola KT, Maunuksela E-L (1993) Comparison of ventilatory effects of morphine and buprenorphin in children. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 37: 449–453PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Hamunen K, Maunuksela E-L, Sarvela J, Bullingham RES, Olkkola KT (1999) Stereoselective pharmacokinetics of ketorolac in children, adolescents and adults. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 43:1041–1046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Hartley R, Green M, Quinn M, Levene MI (1993) Pharmacokinetics of morphine infusion in premature neonates. Arch Dis Child 69:55–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Hartley R, Green M, Quinn MW, Rushforth JA, Levene MI (1994) Development of morphine glucuronidation in premature neonates. Biol Neonate 66:1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Hasselström J, Säwe J (1993) Morphine pharmacokinetics and metabolism in humans: enterohepatic cycling and relative contribution of metabolites to active opioid concentrations. Clin Pharmacokin 24:344–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Haynes G, Braken NH, Hill HF (1993) Plasma sufentanil concentration after intranasal administration to paediatric outpatients. Can J Anaesth 40: 286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Hertzka RE, Gauntlett IS, Fisher DM, Spell-man M J (1989) Fentanyl-induced ventilatory depression: effects of age. Anesthesiology 70: 213–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 107.
    Heubi JE, Bien JP (1997) Acetaminophen use in children: More is not better. J Pediatr 130: 175–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 108.
    Hickey PR, Hanse DD, Klessel DL, Lang P, Jonas RA, Elieson EM (1985) Blunting of stress responses in the pulmonary circulation of infants by fentanyl. Anesth Analg 64: 1137–1142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Hillson JL, Furst DE (2000) Rofecoxib. Expert Opi Pharmacother 1:1053–1066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Hoke JF, Shlugman D, Dershwitz M et al. (1997) Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of remifentanil in persons with renal failure compared with healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology 87:533–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Hopkins CS, Underhill S, Booker PD (1990) Pharmacokinetics of paracetamol after cardiac surgery. Arch Dis Child 65:971–976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Howard CR, Howard FM, Weitzman ML (1994) Acetaminophen analgesia in neonatal circumcision: The effect of pain. Pediatrics 93: 641–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Howie MB, Smith DF, Harrington K et al. (1984) Serum concentrations of sufentanil and fentanyl in the post-operative course in cardiac surgery patients. Anesthesiology 61: A131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Hughes MA, Glass PS A, Jacobs JR (1992) Context-sensitive half-time in multicompartment pharmacokinetic models for intravenous anesthetic drugs. Anesthesiology 76: 334–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 115.
    Hunt A, Joel S, Dick G, Goldman A (1999) Population pharmacokinetics of oral morphine and its glucuronides in children receiving morphine as immediate-release liquid or sustained-release tablets for cancer pain. J Pediatr 135(1): 47–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 116.
    Hunt A, Goldman A, Devine T, Phillips M (2001) Transdermal fentanyl for pain relief in a paediatric palliative care population. Palliat Med 15: 405–412PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 117.
    Iisalo EUM, Iisalo E (1978) A comparison of high dose pentazocine with pethidin and diazepam in paediatric premedication. Ann Chir Gynecol 67:123–128Google Scholar
  119. 118.
    Ivani G, Bergendahl HTG, Lampugnani E (1998) Plasma levels of Clonidine following epidural bolus injection in children. Acta Anaesth Scand 42:306–311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 119.
    Jacqz-Aigrain E, Burtin P (1996) Clinical pharmacokinetics of sedatives in neonates. Clin Pharmacokinet 31: 423–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 120.
    Jamali S, Monin S, Begon C, Dubousset AM, Ecoffey C (1994) Clonidine in pediatric caudal anesthesia. Anesth Analg 78: 663–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 121.
    Jarvis AP, Arancibia CU (1987) A case of difficult neonatal ventilation. Anesth Analg 66: 196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 122.
    Johnson KL, Erickson JP, Holley FO, Scott JC (1984) Fentanyl pharmacokinetics in the pediatric population. Anesthesiology 61: A441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 123.
    Jorch G, Rickers E, Rabe H, Bömelburg T, Hentschel R, Michel E (1989) Pethidin-Anal-gesie und Hirnkreislauf bei sehr kleinen Frühgeborenen. Klin Pädiatr 201:195–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 124.
    Kart T, Chirstrup LL, Rasmussen M (1997) Recommended use of morphine in neonates, infants and children based on a literature review. Part 1: Pharmacokinetics. Pediatr Anaesth 7:5–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 125.
    Kart T, Christrup LL, Rasmussen M (1997) Recommended use of morphine in neonates, infants and children based on a literature review. Part 2: Clinical use. Paediatr Anaesth 7:93–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 126.
    Katz R, Kelley W (1993) Pharmacokinetics of continous infusions of fentanyl in critically ill children. Crit Care Med 21: 995–1000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 127.
    Katz R, Kelley HW, Hsi A (1994) Prospective study of the occurrence of withdrawal in critically ill children who receive fentanyl by continous infusion. Crit Care Med 22: 763–767PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 128.
    Kaltenbach ML, Mohammed SS, Mullersman G, Perrin JH, Derendorf H (1994) Pharmacokinetic evaluation of two ibuprofen-codeine combinations. Int J Clin Pharm Ther 32: 210–214Google Scholar
  130. 129.
    Kamei J (1998) Role of opioidergic and serotonergic mechanisms in cough and antitussives. Pulm Pharmacol 9:349–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 130.
    Kan RE, Hughes SC, Rosen MA, Kessin C, Preston PG, Lobo EP (1998) Intravenous remifentanil. Placental transfer, maternal and neonatal effects. Anesthesiology 88: 1467–1474PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 131.
    Kauffman RE, Nelson MV (1992) Effect of age on ibuprofen pharmacokinetics and antipyretic response. J Pediatr 121:969–973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 132.
    Kauffmann RE, Bollinger RO, Wan SH, Oren J (1982) Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of naproxen in Children. Dev Pharmacol Ther 5:143–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 133.
    Kaufman DW, Kelley JP, Levy M (1991) The drug etiology of agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. Oxford Univ Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  135. 134.
    Kay B (1980) A double-blind comparison between fentanyl and buprenorphin in analgesic-supplemented anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 52: 453–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 134a.
    Kelley MT, Watson PD, Edge JH, Cox S, Mortensen ME (1992) Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ibuprofen isomers and acetaminophen in febrile children. Clin Pharmacol Ther 52:181–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 135.
    Keränen A, Nykänen S, Taskinen J (1978) Pharmakokinetics and side-effects of Clonidine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 13: 97–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 136.
    Keuth B, Stapenhorst L, Adams HA, Roth B (2001) Analgosedierung von beatmeten Neugeborenen und Säuglingen mit S(+)-Ketamin. Geburth Neonatol 205 [Suppl 1]: S10Google Scholar
  139. 137.
    Killian A, Davis PJ, Stiller RL, Cicco R, Cook DR, Guthrie RD (1990) Influence of gestational age on pharmacokinetics of alfentanil in neonates. Dev Pharmacol Ther 15: 82–85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 138.
    Koehntop DE, Rodamm JH, Brundage DM, Hegland MG (1986) Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in neonates. Anesth Analg 65: 227–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 139.
    Konstan MW, Hoppel CL, Chai BL, Davis PB (1991) Ibuprofen in children with cystic fibrosis: pharmacokinetics and adverse effects. J Pediatr 118:956–964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 140.
    Koren G, Crean P, Goresky GV, Klein J, MacLeod SM (1984a) Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in children with renal disease. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 46: 371–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 141.
    Koren G, Goresky G, Creau P, Klein J, Mac Lerd SM (1984b) Pediatric fentanyl dosing based on pharmacokinetics during cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 63: 577–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 142.
    Koren G, Butt W, Chinvanga H, Soldin S, Tan YK, Pape K (1985) Post-operative morphine infusion in newborn infants: Assessment of disposition characeteristics and safety. J Pediatr 107: 963–967PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 143.
    Kornblum HI, Langklin SE, Leslie FM (1987) Effects of morphine on DNA synthesis in neonatal rat brain. Dev Brain Res 31:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 144.
    Korpela R, Olkkola KT (1990) Pharmacokinetics of intravenous diclofenac sodium in children. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 38: 293–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 145.
    Krane EJ (1988) Delayed respiratory depression in a child after caudal epidural morphine. Anesth Analg 67: 79–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 146.
    Kuhls E, Gauntlett IS, Lau M, Brown R, Rudolph CD, Teitel DF, Fisher DM (1995) Effect of increased intra-abdominal pressure on hepatic extraction and clearance of fentanyl in neonatal lambs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 274:115–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 147.
    Kuhnert BR, Kuhnert PM, Tu A-S, Lin DCK (1979) Meperidine and normeperidine levels following meperidine administration during labor. II Fetus and neonate. Am J Obstet Gynecol 133: 909–914PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 148.
    Kuhnert BR, Kuhnert PM, Philipson EH, Syracuse CD (1985) Disposition of meperidine and normeperidine following multiple doses during labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151: 410–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 149.
    Lago P, Benini F, Agosto C, Zacchello F (1998) Randomised controlled trial of low dose fentanyl infusion in preterm infants with hyaline membrane disease. Arch Dis Child 79: 194–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 150.
    Lago P, Bettiol T, Salvadori S, Pitassi I, Vianello A, Chiandetti L, Saia OS (2002) Safety and efficacy of ibuprofen vs. indomethacin in preterm infants treated for patent ductus arteriosus: a randomised controlled trial. Eur J Pediatr 161: 202–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 151.
    Lajarrige C, Adafer M, Mouthemy G, Kremp L (1993) Effet du fentanyl sur la ventilation du prématuré. Arch Fr Pédiatr 50: 27–24Google Scholar
  154. 152.
    Lambertsen CJ, Wendel H, Longenhagen JB (1961) The separate and combined respiratory effects of chlorpromazine and meperidine in normal men controlled at 46 mmHg alveolar pCO<sub>2</sub>. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 131:381–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 153.
    Lehmann KA, Tenbuhs B, Hoeckle W (1986) Patient-controlled analgesia with piritramid for the treatment of post-operative pain. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg 37: 247–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 154.
    Lesko SM, Mitchell AA (1995) An assessment of the safety of pediatric ibuprofen. JAMA 273: 929–933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 155.
    Levron JC, Le Moing JP, Chauvin M, Duvaldestin P, Camboulives J, Ferrier C (1992) Pharmacokinetics of transdermal fentanyl: the effect of age. In: Bres J, Panis G (Hrsg) Pharmacocinetique: de la recherche à la clinique. John Libbey EurotextGoogle Scholar
  158. 156.
    Levy M, Zylber-Katz E, Rosenkranz B (1995) Clinical pharmacokinetics of dipyrone and its metabolites. Clin Pharmacokinet 28: 216–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 157.
    Lindena G, Arnau H, Liefhold J (1998) Hydro-morphon — pharmakologische Eigenschaften und therapeutische Wirksamkeit. Der Schmerz 12:195–204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 158.
    Lin Y-G, Sussman HH, Benitz WE (1997) Plasma concentrations after rectal administration of acetaminophen in preterm neonates. Paediatr Anaesth 7: 457–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 159.
    Litalien C, Jacqz-Aigrain E (2001) Risks and benefits of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in children: a comparison with paracetamol. Paediatr Drugs 3: 817–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 160.
    Lonnqvist PA, Bergendahl H (1993) Pharmacokinetics and haemodynamic response after an intravenous bolus injection of Clonidine in children. Paeditr Anaesth 3:359–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 161.
    Lonnqvist PA, Bergendahl HTG, Eksborg S (1994) Pharmacokinetics of Clonidine after rectal administration in children. Anesthesiology 81:1097–1101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 162.
    Lynn AM, Opheim KE, Tyler DT (1984) Morphine infusion after pediatric cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med 12: 863–866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 163.
    Lynn AM, Slattery JT (1987) Morphine pharmacokinetics in early infancy. Anesthesiology 66:136–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 164.
    Lynn AM, Nespeca MK, Opheim KE, Slattery JT (1993) Respiratory effects of intravenous morphine infusions in neonates, infants, and children after cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 77: 695–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 165.
    Mac Gregor R, Evans D, Sugden D, Gaussen T, Levene M (1998) Outcome at 5–6 years of prematurely born children who received morphin as neonates. Arch Dis Child 79: 40–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 166.
    Magnani B, Evans R, Hegland UG, Buckley J (1999) Codeine intoxication in the neonate. Pediatrics 104: e75Google Scholar
  169. 167.
    Makela AL, Lempianen M, Ylijorki H (1981) Ibuprofen levels in serum and synovial fluid. Scand J Rheumatol 39:15–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 168.
    Marlow N, Weindling AM, Cooke RWI (1988) Hazards of analgesia for newborn infants. Arch Dis Child 63:1293–1298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 169.
    Marlow N, Weindling AM, Peer A, Heykants J (1990) Alfentanil pharmacokinetics in preterm infants. Arch Dis Child 65:349–351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 170.
    Marsh DF, Hatch DJ, Fitzgerald M (1997) Opioid systems and the newborn. Br J Anaesthesia 79:787–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 171.
    Mather IE (1983) Clinical pharmacokinetics of fentanyl and its new derivatives. Clin Pharmacokinet 8:422–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 172.
    Mather SJ, Pentrell JM (1995) Postoperative morphine requirements, nausea and vomiting following anaesthesia for tonsillectomy. Comparison of intravenous morphine and nonopioid analgesic techniques. Pediatr Anaesth 5:185–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 173.
    Maunuksela EL, Hamunen K (1996) Dose response of oxycodone and morphine in children and adults. Abstract 162,8th World Congress on Pain, August 17–22, Vancouver, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  176. 174.
    Maunuksela EL, Korpola R, Olkkola KT (1988a) Double-blind, multiple-dose comparison of buprenorphin and morphine in postoperative pain of children. Br J Anaesth 60:48–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 175.
    Maunuksela EL, Olkkola KT, Korpola R (1988b) Does prophylactic intravenous infusion of indomethacin improve the management of postoperative pain in children? Can J Anaesth 35:123–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 176.
    McClain BC, Ennevor S (2000) The use of gabapentin in pediatric patients with neuropathic pain. Sem Anesthesia Periop Med Pain 19: 83–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 177.
    McGraw T, Raborn W, Grace M (1987) Analgesics in pediatric dental surgery. J Dent Child 54:106–109Google Scholar
  180. 178.
    McRorie TI, Lynn AM, Nespeca MK, Opheim KE, Slattery JT (1992) The maturation of morphine clearance and metabolism. Am J Dis Child 146: 972–976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 179.
    Meistelman C, Saint-Maurice G, Leupaul M, Levron JC, Loose JP, Mac Gee G (1987) A comparison of alfentanil pharmacokinetics in children and adults. Anesthesiology 66:13–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 180.
    Meistelman C, Benhamou D, Barre J, Levron J-C, Mahe V, Mazoit X, Ecoffey C (1990) Effects of age on plasma protein binding of sufentanil. Anesthesiology 72: 470–473PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 181.
    Meuldermans WEG, Hurkmans RMA, Heykants J (1982) Plasma protein binding and distribution of fentanyl, sufentanil, alfentanil and lofentanil in blood. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 257:4–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 182.
    Meuldermans W, Woestenborghs R, Noorduin H, Camu F, von Steenberge A, Heykants J (1986) Protein binding of the analgesics alfentanil and sufentanil in maternal and neonatal plasma. Eur J Pharmacol 30:217–219Google Scholar
  185. 183.
    Meuldermans W, Hendrickx J, Lauwers et al. (1987) Excretion and biotransformation of alfentanil and sufentanil in rats and dogs. Drug Metab Dispos 15:905–913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 184.
    Mikawa K, Maekawa N, Nishina K (1993) Efficacy of oral Clonidine premedication in children. Anesthesiology 79:926–931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 185.
    Miller RP, Roberts RJ, Fischer LJ (1976) Acetaminophen elimination kinetics in neonates, children, and adults. Clin Pharmacol Ther 19: 284–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 186.
    Miser AW, Chayt KJ, Sandlund JT, Cohen PS, Dothage JA, Miser JS (1986) Narcotic withdrawal syndrome in young adults after the therapeutic use of opiates. Am J Dis Child 140: 603–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 187.
    Morselli PL, Franco-Morselli R, Bossi L (1980) Clinical pharmacokinetics in newborns and infants. Age-related differences and therapeutic implications. Clin Pharmacokinet 5: 485–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 187a.
    Monk JP, Berenford R, Ward A (1988) Sufentanil: A review of its pharmacologic properties and therapeutic use. Drugs 36: 286–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 188.
    Morselli PL, Roven V (1980) Placental transfer of pethidin and norpethidin and their pharmacokinetics in the newborn. Eur J Clin Pharmacokinet 18: 25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 189.
    Morton NS, O’Brien K (1999) Analgesic efficacy of paracetamol and diclofenac in children receiving PCA morphine. Br J Anaesth 82:715–717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 190.
    Moulenaar F, Schoonen AJM, Evertz A, Huizinga T (1979) Biopharmaceutics of rectal administration of drugs in man. 4: Absorption rate and bioavailability of paracetamol from fatty suppositories. Pharm Week (Sci) 1: 89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 191.
    Munro HM, Riegger LQ, Reynolds PI (1994) Comparison of the analgesic and emetic properties of ketorolac and morphine for paediatric outpatient strabismus surgery. Br J Anaesth 72: 624–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 192.
    Murat I, Levon JC, Berg A, Saint-Maurice C (1988) Effects of fentanyl on baroreceptor reflex control of heart rate in newborn infants. Anesthesiology 68:717–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 193.
    Nahata M, Miser A, Miser JS, Reuning RH (1985) Variation in morphine pharmacokinetics in children with cancer. Dev Pharmacol Ther 8:182–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 194.
    Nation RL (1981) Meperidine binding in maternal and fetal plasma. Clin Pharmacol Ther 29: 472–479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 195.
    Nichols DG, Yaster M, Lynn AM et al. (1993) Disposition and respiratory effect of intrathecal morphine in children. Anesthesiology 79:733–738PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 196.
    Nishina K, Mikawa K, Maekawa N (1994) Clonidine decreases the dose of thiamylal required to induce anesthesia in children. Anesth Analg 79: 766–768PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 197.
    Nishina K, Mikawa K, Maekawa N (1996) The efficacy of Clonidine for reducing perioperative haemodynamic changes and volatile anaesthetic requirements in children. Anaes-thesiol Scand 40: 746–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 198.
    Nishina K, Mikawa K, Shiga M, Takao Y, Maekawa N, Obara H (2000) Diclofenac and furbiprofen with or without Clonidine for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing elective ophthalmological surgery. Paedi-atr Anaesth 10: 645–651Google Scholar
  202. 199.
    Noyes M, Irving H (2001) The use of transdermal fentanyl in pediatric oncology palliative care. Am J Hosp Palliat Care 18:411–416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 200.
    Olkkola KT, Maunuksela E-L, Korpela R, Rosenberg PH (1988) Kinetics and dynamics of postoperative intravenous morphine in children. Clin Pharmacol Ther 44:128–136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 201.
    Olkkola KT, Maunuksela E-L, Korpela R (1989) Pharmacokinetics of intravenous buprenorphin in children. Br J Pharm 28: 202–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 202.
    Olkkola KT, Maunuksela EL, Korpl R (1989) Pharmacokinetics of postoperative intravenous indomethacin in children. Pharmacol Toxicol 65:157–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 203.
    Olkkola KT, Hamunen K, Seppäla T, Maunuksela EL (1994) Pharmacokinetics and ventilatory effects of intravenous oxycodone in postoperative children Br J Pharm 38:71–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 204.
    Olkkola KT, Hamunen K, Maunuksela E-L (1995) Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of opioid analgesics in infants and children. Clin Pharmacokinet 28: 385–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 205.
    Orsini AJ, Leet KH, Costarino A, Dettore MD, Stefano JL (1996) Routine use of fentanyl infusions for pain and stress reduction in infants with respiratory distress syndrome. J Pediatr 129:140–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 206.
    Osborne RJ, Joel SP, Slevin ML (1986) Morphine intoxication in renal failure: the role of morphine-6-glucuronide. Br J Med 232: 1548–1549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 207.
    Parke TJ, Millett S, Old S, Goodwin AP, Rice AS (1995) Ketorolac for early postoperative analgesia. J Clin Anaesth 199557:465–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 208.
    Paut O, Camboulives J, Viard L, Lemoing JP, Levron JC (2000) Pharmacokinetics of transdermal fentanyl in the peri-operative period in young children. Anaesthesia 55:1202–1207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 209.
    Pedraz JL, Calvo MB, Lanao JM, Muriel C, Santos Lamas J, Dominguez-Gil A (1989) Pharmacokinetics of rectal ketamine in children. Br J Anaesth 63: 671–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 210.
    Pendeville PE, Montigny S von, Dort JP, Veyckemans F (2000) Double-blind randomized study of tramadol vs. paracetamol in analgesia after day-case tonsillectomy in children. Eur J Anaesthesiol 17: 576–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 211.
    Petrat G, Klein U, Meißner W (1997) On-demand analgesia with piritramide in children. A study on dosage specification and safety. Eur J Pediatr Surg 7:38–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 212.
    Pickering AE, Bridge HS, Nolan J, Stoddart PA (2002) Double-blind, placebo-controlled analgesic study of ibuprofen or rofecoxib in combination with paracetamol for tonsillectomy in children. Br J Anaesth 88:72–77PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 213.
    Poyhiä R, Seppäla T, Olkkola K, Kalso E (1992) The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of oxycodone after intramuscular and oral administration to healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharm 33: 617–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 214.
    Pokela M-L, Olkkola KT, Koivisto M, Ryhänen P (1992a) Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous meperidine in neonates and infants. Clin Pharmacol Ther 52:342–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 215.
    Pokela M-L, Ryhänen PT, Koivisto ME, Olkkola KT, Sankkonen AL (1992b) Alfentanil-induced rigidity in newborn infants. Anesth Analg 75: 252–257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 216.
    Pokela M-L, Olkkola KT, Seppäla T, Koivisto M (1993) Age-related morphine kinetics in infants. Dev Pharmacol Ther 20: 26–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 217.
    Pokela M-L (1997) Overdoses of pethidin given to preterm neonates. Acta Paediatr 86: 323–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 218.
    Porter FL, Grunau RE, Anand KJS (1999) Long-term effects of pain in infants. Dev Behav Pediatr 20: 253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 219.
    Purcell-Jones G, Dormon MB, Summer BM (1987) The use of opioids in neonates: A retrospective study of 933 cases. Anaesthesia 42:1316–1320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 220.
    Ramesh VJ, Bhardwaj N, Batra YK (1997) Comparative study of oral Clonidine and diazepam as premedicants in children. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 35: 218–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 221.
    Rantiainen P (1991) Alfentanil infusion for sedation in infants and small children during cardiac catherization. Can J Anaesth 38: 980–984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 222.
    Rauch F, Schönau E, Glorieux FH (2000) Bisphosphonate. Anwendung in der Pädiatrie. Monatsschr Kinderheilk 148:334–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 222.
    223- Reyle-Hahn M, Niggemann B, Max M, Streich R, Rossaint R (2000) Remifentanil and propofol for sedation in children and young adolescents undergoing diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. Paediatr Anesth 10: 59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 224.
    Rita L, Seleny F, Goodarzi M (1980) Comparison of the calming and sedative effects of nalbuphine and pentazocine for paediatric premedication. Can Anaesth Soc 27:546–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 225.
    Rivera-Penera T, Gugig R, Davis J et al. (1997) Outcome of acetaminophen overdose in pediatric patients and factors contributing to hepatotoxicity J Pediatr 130:300–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 226.
    Robieux IC, Kellner JD, Coppes MJ et al. (1992) Analgesia in children with sickle cell crisis: Comparison of intermittent opioids vs continuous intravenous infusion of morphine and placebo-controlled study of oxygen inhalation. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 9: 317–326PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 227.
    Romsing J, Ostergaard D, Senderovitz T, Drozdziewicz D, Sonne J, Ravn G (2001) Pharmakokinetics of oral diclofenac and acetaminophen in children after surgery. Paed Anaesth 11: 205–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 228.
    Romsing J, Moiniche S, Dahl JB (2002) Rectal and parenteral paracetamol, and paracetamol in combination with NSAIDs, for postoperative analgesia. Br J Anaesth 88: 215–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 229.
    Ross AK, Davis PJ, Dear GG, Ginsberg B, Mc-Gowan FX, Stiller RD, Henson LG, Huffman C, Muir KT (2001) Pharmacokinetics in anesthetized pediatric patients undergoing elective surgery or diagnostic procedures. Anesth Analg 93:1370–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 230.
    Roth B, Schlünder C, Houben F, Günther M, Theisohn M (1991) Analgesia and sedation in neonatal intensive care using fentanyl by continous infusion. Dev Pharmacol Ther 17: 121–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 231.
    Roure PN, Jean N, Leclerc AC et al. (1987) Pharmacokinetics of alfentanil in children undergoing surgery. Br J Anaesth 59: 1437–1440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 232.
    Ryan JP, Meakin G (1989) Fentanyl overdose in a neonate: use of naloxone. Anaesthesia 44: 864–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 233.
    Ryhanen P, Adamski J, Puhakka K (1994) Postoperative pain relief in children: a comparison between caudal bupivacain and intramuscular diclofenac sodium. Anaesthesia 49:57–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 234.
    Saarenmaa E, Huttunen P, Leppäluoto J, Fell-man V (1996) Alfentanil as procedural pain relief in newborn infants. Arch Dis Child 75: F103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 235.
    Saarenmaa E, Huttunen P, Leppäluoto J, Meretoja O, Fellman V (1999) Advantages of fentanyl over morphine in analgesia for ventilated newborn infants after birth: A randomized trial. J Pediatr 134:144–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 236.
    Sabatowski R, Kasper SM, Radbruch L (2002) Patient-controlled analgesia with intravenous L-methadone in a child with cancer pain refractory to high-dose morphine. J Pain Symptom Manage 23:3–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 237.
    Santeiro ML, Christie J, Stromquist C, Torres BA, Markowsky SJ (1997) Pharmacokinetics of continuous infusion of fentanyl in newborns. J Perinatol 17:135–139PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 238.
    Schäffer J, Piepenbrock S, Kretz F-J, Schönfeld C (1986) Nalbuphin und Tramadol zur postoperativen Schmerzbekämpfung bei Kindern. Anaesthesist 35: 408–413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 239.
    Schäffer J, Hagemann H, Holzapfel S, Panning B, Piepenbrock S (1989) Untersuchung zur postoperativen Schmerztherapie bei Kleinkindern mit Tramadol. Fortschritte Anästh Notfall-Intensivmed 3: 42–45Google Scholar
  243. 240.
    Schechter NL, Weisman SJ, Rosenblum M, Bernstein B, Conard PL (1995) The use of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate for painful procedures in children. Pediatrics 95:335–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 241.
    Scholz J, Steinfath M, Schulz M (1996) Clinical pharmacokinetics of alfentanil, fentanyl and sufentanil. Clin Pharmacokinet 31: 275–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 242.
    Schwartz AE, Matteo RS, Ornsteine E, Thornhill BA (1987) Pharmacokinetics of sufentanil in hyperventilated patients Anaesth Analg 66 Suppl: 151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 243.
    Seguin JH, Erenberg A, Leffl PD (1994) Safety and efficacy of sufentanil therapy in the ventilated Infant. Neonatal Network 13:37–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 244.
    Seibert K, Zhang Y, Leahy K et al. (1994) Pharmacological and biochemical demonstration of the role of cyclo oxygenase 2 in inflammation and pain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 12013–12017PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 245.
    Semple V, Russell S, Doyle E, Aldridge LM (1999) Comparison of morphine sulphate and codein phosphate in children undergoing adrenotonsillectomy. Paediatr Anaesth 9: 135–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 246.
    Shanahan EC, Marshall AG, Garrett CPO (1983) Adverse reactions of intravenous codeine phosphate in children. Anaesthesia 38: 40–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 247.
    Sharar SR, Bratton SL, Carrougher GJ, Edwards WT, Summer G, Levy FH, Cortiella J (1998) A comparison of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate and oral hydromorphone for inpatient pediatric burn wound care analgesia. J Burn Care Rehabil 19:516–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 248.
    Sharar SR, Carrougher GJ, Selzer K, O’Donnell F, Vavilala MS, Lee LA (2002) A comparison of oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate and oral oxycodone for pediatric outpatient wound care. J Burn Care Rehabil 23: 27–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 249.
    Shah V, Taddio A, Ohlsson A (1998) Randomized controlled trial of paracetamol for heel prick pain in neonates. Arch Dis Child 79: F209–F211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 250.
    Shann F (1993) Paracetamol: When, why, and how much? J Pediatr Child Health 29: 84–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 251.
    Shir Y, Shenkman Z, Shavelson V, Davidson EM, Rosen G (1998) Oral methadone for the treatment of severe pain in hospitalized children: a report of five cases. Clin J Pain 14: 350–353PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 252.
    Shlugman D, Dufore S, Dershwitz M et al. (1994) Respiratory effects of remifentanil in subjects with severe renal impairment compared to matched controls. Anesthesiology 81: A1417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 253.
    Singleton MA, Rosen J, Fisher DM (1984) Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in infants and adults. Anesthesiology 61: A440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 254.
    Sjögren P, Dragsted L, Christensen CB (1993) Myoclonic spasms during treatment with high doses of intravenous morphine in renal failure. Acta Anaesth Scand 37: 780–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 255.
    Sommer M, Riedel J, Fusch Ch, Fetsge OA, Hachenberg T (2001) Intravenous anaesthesia with remifentanil in a preterm infant. Paed Anaesth 11: 249–256Google Scholar
  259. 256.
    Stanski DR, Paalzow L, Edlund PO (1982) Morphine pharmacokinetics: GLC assay versus radioimmunoassay. J Pharm Sci 71:314–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 257.
    Steans A, Manners PJ, Robinson IG (1990) A multicenter long-term evaluation of the safety and efficacy of ibuprofen syrup in children with juvenile chronic arthritis. BJCP 44: 172–175Google Scholar
  261. 258.
    Stile IL, Fort M, Wurzburger RJ (1987) The pharmacokinetics of naloxone in the premature newborn. Dev Pharmacol Ther 10: 454–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 259.
    Streisand JB, Hague B, van Vreeswijk HV et al. (1987) Oral transmucosal fentanyl premedication in children. Anesth Analg 66: S170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 260.
    Talbott GA, Lynn AM, Levy FH, Zelikovic I (1997) Respiratory arrest precipitated by codeine in a child with chronic renal failure. Clin Pediatr 36:171–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 261.
    Tay CL, Tan S (2002) Diclofenac or paracetamol for analgesia in paediatric myringotomy outpatients. Anaesth Intensive Care 30:55–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 262.
    Tegeder I, Lötsch J, Geisslinger G (1999) Pharmacokinetics of opioids in liver disease. Clin Pharmacokinet 37:17–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 263.
    Tempel A, Habas JE, Paredes W, Barr GA (1988) Morphine induced down regulation of u-opioid receptors in neonatal rat brain. Dev Brain Res 41:129–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 264.
    Thornton SR, Compton DR, Smith FL (1998) Ontogeny of mu opioid agonist antinociception in postnatal rats. Dev Brain Res 105: 269–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 265.
    Tobias JD (1996) Tramadol for postoperative analgesia in adolescents following orthopedic surgery in a third world country. Am J Pain Manage 6:51–53Google Scholar
  269. 266.
    Tobias JD (1997) Seizure after overdose of tramadol. South Med J 90: 826–827PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 267.
    Trieschmann U, Hering F, Laschat M, Holzki J (1996) Clonidin in der Analgosedierung bei Kindern. Der Schmerz [Suppl 1]: 52Google Scholar
  271. 268.
    Vandenberghe H, Mac Leod S, Chinyanga H, Endrenyi L, Soldin S (1983) Pharmacokinetics of intravenous morphine in balanced anesthesia: Studies in children. Drug Metab Rev 14:887–903PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 269.
    Vanegas H, Schaible HG (2001) Prostaglandins and cyclo oxygenases in the spinal cord. Progress in Neurology 64:327–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 270.
    Van Lingen R, Quak C, Deinum H, van de Logt F, van Eyck J, Okken A (1995) Clinical effects of rectally administerd acetaminophen (APAP) on infants delivered by vacuumex-traction (VE). Pediatr Res 38: 458Google Scholar
  274. 271.
    Van Lingen RA, Deinum JT, Quak JME et al. (1999) Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of rectally administerd paracetamol in preterm neonates. Arch Dis Child 80, F59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 272.
    Van Overmeire B, Touw D, Schepens PJC, Kearns GL, van den Anker JN (2001) Ibuprofen pharmacokinetics in preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus. Clin Pharmacol Therap 170:336–343Google Scholar
  276. 273.
    Varvarigou A, Bardin CL, Beharry K, Chemtob S, Papageorgiou A, Aranda JV (1996) Early ibuprofen administration to prevent patent ductus arteriosus in premature newborn infants. JAMA 275: 539–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 274.
    Vetter TR, Heiner EJ (1994) Intravenous ketorolac as an adjuvant to pediatric patient-controlled analgesia with morphine. J Clin Anesth 6:110–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 275.
    Vinik HR, Kissin I (1998) Rapid development of tolerance to analgesia during remifentanil infusion in humans. Anesth Analg 86: 1307–1311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 276.
    Waldvogel HH (1996) Analgetika — Antinozizeptiva — Adjuvanzien. Handbuch für die Schmerzpraxis. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokioCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 277.
    Walson PD, Mortensen ME (1989) Pharmacokinetics of common analgesics, anti-in-flammatories and antipyretics in children. Clin Pharmacokin 17 [Suppl 1]: 116–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 278.
    Wandless JG (1987) A comparison of nalbuphine with morphine for post-orchi-dopexy pain. Eur J Anaesth 4:127–132Google Scholar
  282. 279.
    Waterworth TA (1974) Pentazocine (Fortral) as postoperative analgesic in children. Arch Dis Child 49:488–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 280.
    Watson PD, Galetta G, Braden NJ, Alexander L (1989) Ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and placebo treatment of febrile children. Clin Pharmacol Ther 46:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 281.
    Way WL, Costley EC, Way EL (1965) Respiratory sensitivity of the newborn infant to meperidine and morphin. Clin Pharm Ther 6: 454–461Google Scholar
  285. 282.
    Wee LH, Moriarty A, Cranston A (1999) Remifentanil infusion for major abdominal surgery in small infants. Paed Anaesth 9: 415–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Wells TG, Mortensen ME, Dietrich A, Walson PD, Blasier D, Kearns GL (1994) Comparison of the pharmacokinetics of naproxen tablets and suspension in children. J Clin Pharmacol 1994;34:30–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. 284.
    Wennstrom B, Reinsfelt B (2002) Rectally administered diclofenac (Voltaren) reduces vomiting compared with opioid (morphine) after strabismus surgery in children. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 46: 430–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 285.
    Whyte S, Birrell G, Wyllie J (2000) Premedication before intubation in UK neonatal units. Arch Dis Child 82: F38–F41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 286.
    Wiest DB, Pinson JB, Gal PS, Brundage RC, Schall S, Ransom JL, Weaver RL, Purohit D, Brown Y (1991) Population pharmacokinetics of intravenous indomethacin in neonates with symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus. Clin Pharmacol Ther 49:550–557PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 287.
    Wiest DB, Ohning BL, Gorner SS (1991) The disposition of alfentanil in neonates with respiratory distress. Pharmacotherapy 11: 308–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 288.
    Wilhelm W, Dorscheid E, Schlaich N, Niederprüm P, Deller D (1999) Remifentanil zur Analgosedierung von Intensivpatienten. Anaesthesist 48: 625–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 289.
    Williams DG, Hatch DJ, Howard RF (2001) Codein phosphate in paediatric medicine. Br J Anaesth 86: 413–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 290.
    Wilson AS, Stiller RL, Davis PJ, Fedel G, Chakravorti S, Israel BA, McGowan FX (1997) Fentanyl and alfentanil plasma protein binding in preterm and term neonates. Anesth Analg 84:315–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 291.
    Wolf AR (1999) Pain, nociception and the developing infant. Paediatr Anaesth 9: 7–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 292.
    Wohltmann M, Roth BL, Coscia CJ (1982) Differential postnatal development of mu and delta opiate receptors. Dev Brain Res 3: 679–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 293.
    Yaffe SJ, Friedman WF, Rogers D (1980) The disposition of indomethacin in preterm babies. J Pediatr 97:1001–1006PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 294.
    Yaster M (1987) The dose response of fentanyl in neonatal anesthesia. Anesthesiology 66: 433–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 295.
    Yaster M (1987) Analgesia and anesthesia in neonates. J Pediatr 111:394–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 296.
    Yaster M, Deshpande JK (1988) Management of pediatric pain with opioid analgesics. J Pediatr 113: 421–429PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 297.
    Zedie N, Amroy DW, Wagner BK, O’Hara DA (1996) Comparison of intranasal midazolam and sufentanil premedication in pediatric outpatients. Clin Pharmacol Ther 59:341–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. 298.
    Zelis R, Mansour EJ, Capone RJ, Mason DT (1974) The cardiovascular effects of morphine: the peripheral capacitance and resistance vessels in human subjects. J Clin Invest 54:1247–1258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 299.
    Zernikow B, Grießinger N, Fengler R (1999) Schmerztherapie in der Kinderonkologie. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 147: 438–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 300.
    Zucker TP, Flesche CW (1993) Unerwünschte Nebenwirkung: Thrombophlebitis unter kontinuierlicher Piritramid-Infusion. Anästhesiol Intensivmed 34:360Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Roth
  • C. Hünseler
  • E. Michel
  • B. Zernikow

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations