Root Ecology pp 363-385 | Cite as

Root-Animal Interactions

  • J. B. Whittaker
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 168)

Abstract

In view of the relative inaccessibility and invisibility of belowground organisms, and the prevalence of invertebrates among root herbivores, it is not surprising that understanding of belowground ecological processes has proceeded at a much slower rate than aboveground studies. When Cragg (1961) was writing about soil animals, almost all of the information available to him was descriptive, or, if quantitative, was unable to go much beyond population counts and biomass estimates.

Keywords

Biomass Starch Maize Carbohydrate Proline 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andersen DC (1987) Below-ground herbivory in natural communities: A review emphasizing fossorial animals. Q Rev Biol 62:261–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bach CE (1998) Interactive effects of herbivory and sand burial on growth of a tropical dune plant, Ipomoea pes-caprae. Ecol Entomol 23:238–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barber DA, Martin JK (1976) The release of organic substances by cereal roots into soil. New Phytol 76:69–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bardgett RD, Wardle DA, Yeates GW (1998) Linking above-ground and below-ground interactions: how plant responses to foliar herbivory influence soil organisms. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1867–1878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bayliss JP, Cherrett JM Ford JB (1986) A survey of the invertebrates feeding on living clover roots (Trifolium rep ens L.) using 32P as a radiotracer. Pedobiologia 29:201–208Google Scholar
  6. Bentley S, Whittaker JB (1979) Effects of grazing by a chrysomelid beetle, Gastrophysa viridulciy on competition between Rumex obtusifolius and Rumex crispus. J Ecol 67:79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bortolus A, Iribarne OO, Martinez MM (1998) Relationship between water fowl and the seagrass Ruppia maritima in a southwestern Atlantic coastal lagoon. Estuaries 21:718–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Briske DD, Boulton TW, Wang Z (1996) Contribution of flexible allocation priorities to herb ivory tolerance in C-4 perennial grasses: an evaluation with 13C labeling. Oecologia 105:151–159Google Scholar
  9. Briske DD, Richards JH (1994) Physiological responses of individual plants to grazing: current status and ecological significance. In: Vavra M, Laycock WA, Pieper RD (eds) Ecological implications of livestock herbivory in the west. Soc Range Manage, Denver, pp 147–176Google Scholar
  10. Brown VK (1990) Insect herbivory and its effect on plant succession. In: Burdon JJ, Leather SR (eds) Pests, pathogens and plant communities. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown VK, Gange AC (1990) Insect herbivory below ground. Adv Ecol Res 20:1–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown MW, Glenn DM, Wisniewski ME (1991) Functional and anatomical disruption of apple roots by the woolly apple aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae). J Econ Entomol 84:1823–1826Google Scholar
  13. Brown MW, Schmitt JJ, Ranger S, Hogmire HW (1995) Yield reduction in apple by edaphic woolly apple aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) populations. J Econ Entomol 88:127–133Google Scholar
  14. Coffin DP, Laycock WA, Lauenroth WK (1998) Disturbance intensity and above- and below-ground herbivory effects on long-term (14 y) recovery of semi-arid grassland. Plant Ecol 139:221–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Collantes HG, Gianoli E, Niemeyer HM (1998) Changes in growth and chemical defences upon defoliation in maize. Phyto chemistry 49:1921–1923Google Scholar
  16. Collins CM, Rosado RG, Leather SR (2001) The impact of the aphids Tuberolachnus salignus and Pteocomma Salicis on willow trees. Ann Appl Biol 138:133–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cook PA (1996) Effects of the spruce root aphid, Pachypappa vesicali, on the growth and physiology of Sitka spruce seedlings. PhD Thesis, Lancaster UniversityGoogle Scholar
  18. Coulson JC, Whittaker JB (1978) Ecology of moorland animals. In: Heal OW, Perkins DF (eds) Production ecology of British moors and montane grasslands. Ecological Studies 27. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Cragg JB (1961) Some aspects of the ecology of moorland animals. J Ecol 49:477–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crutchfield BA, Potter DA (1994) Preferences of Japanese beetle and southern masked chafer (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) grubs among cool-season turfgrasses. J Entomol Sci 29:398–406Google Scholar
  21. Denton CS, Bardgett RD, Cook R (1996) Nematode-microbial interactions in the rhizos-phere of grassland plants. Abstracts of the Annual Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council Plant Microbe Interactions Initiative Meeting, March 1996, University of ManchesterGoogle Scholar
  22. Denton CS, Bardgett RD, Cook R, Hobbs PJ (1999) Low amounts of root herbivory positively influence the rhizosphere microbial community in a temperate grassland soil. Soil Biol Biochem 31:155–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Detling JK, Winn DT, Proctor-Gregg C, Painter KL (1980) Effects of simulated grazing by below-ground herbivores on growth, CO2 exchange, and carbon allocation patterns of Bouteloua gracilis. J Appl Ecol 17:771–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dicke M, Dijkman H (2001) Within-plant circulation of systemic elicitor of induced defence and release from roots of elicitor that affects neighbouring plants. Biochem Syst Ecol 29:1075–1087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dintenfass LP, Brown GC (1988) Quantifying effects of clover root curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larval feeding on biomass and root reserves of alfalfa. J Econ Entomol 81:641–648Google Scholar
  26. Eissenstat DM, Wells CE, Yanai RD, Whitbeck JL (2000). Building roots in a changing environment: implications for root longevity. New Phytol 147:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Engels RK, Nichols JT, Dodd JL, Brummer JE (1998) Root and shoot responses of sand bluestem to defoliation. J Range Manage 51:42–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ford MA, Grace JB (1998) Effects of vertebrate herbivores on soil processes, plant bio-mass, litter accumulation and soil elevation changes in a coastal marsh. J Ecol 86:974–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Freckman DW, Barker KR, Coleman DC, Acras M, Dyer MI, Strain BR, McNaughton SJ (1991) The use of the 11C technique to measure plant responses to herbivorous soil nematodes. Funct Ecol 5:810–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. French N (1969) Assessment of leather-jacket damage to grassland and economic aspects of control. Proceedings of the 5th British Insecticide and Fungicide Conference, vol 2, pp 511–521Google Scholar
  31. Gange AC (2001) Species-specific responses of a root- and shoot-feeding insect to arbus-cular mycorrhizal colonization of its host plant. New Phytol 150:611–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gange AC, Brown VK (1989) Effects of root herbivory by an insect on a foliar-feeding species, mediated through changes in the host plant. Oecologia 81:38–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gunn A, Cherrett JM (1993) The exploitation of food resources by soil meso- and macro-invertebrates. Pedobiologia 37:303–320Google Scholar
  34. Hatcher PE (1996) The effect of insect-fungus interactions on the autumn growth and over-wintering of Rumex crispus and R. obtusifolius seedlings. J Ecol 84:101–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hendrick RL, Pregitzer KS (1992) The demography of fine roots in a northern hardwood forest. Ecology 73:1094–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hendrick RL, Pregitzer KS (1993) Patterns of fine root mortality in two sugar maple forests. Nature 361:59–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hibbard BF, Bjostad LB (1988) Behavioral responses of western corn rootworm larvae to volatile semiochemicals from corn seedlings. J Chem Ecol 14:1523–1539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hidaka M (1973) Effect of cutting on the total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) contents in the roots and crowns of Rumex obtusifolius L. J JPN Grassi Sci 19:313–317 (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
  39. Holland JN, Cheng WX, Crossley DA (1996) Herbivore-induced changes in plant carbon allocation: assessment of below-ground C fluxes using 14C. Oecologia 107:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ingham RE, Detling JK (1986) Effects of defoliation and nematode consumption on growth and leaf gas exchange in Bouteloua curtipendula. Oikos 46:23–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jameson DA (1963) Responses of individual plants to harvesting. Bot Rev 29:532–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kilham K (1994) Soil ecology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  43. Kosola KR, Eissenstat DM, Graham JH (1995) Root demography of mature citrus trees: the influence of Phytophthora nicotianae. Plant Soil 171:283–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kosola KR, Dickman DI, Paul EA et al. (2001) Repeated insect defoliation effects on growth, nitrogen acquisition, carbohydrates, and root demography of poplars. Oecologia 129:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lawton JH, Strong DR (1981) Community patterns and competition in folivorous insects. Am Nat 118:317–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Llewellyn M (1982) The energy economy of fluid-feeding herbivorous insects. In: Visser JH, Minks AK (eds) Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Insect-Plant Relationships , Wageningen, Netherlands, pp 243–252Google Scholar
  47. Loveys BR, Bird AF (1973) The influence of nematodes on photosynthesis in tomato plants. Physiol Plant Path 3:525–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Macfadyen A (1952) The small arthropods of a Mollinia fen at Cothill. J Anim Ecol 21:87–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Maron JL (1998) Insect herbivory above- and belowground: Individual and joint effects on plant fitness. Ecology 79:1281–1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Masters GJ (1995) The effect of herbivore density on host plant mediated interactions between two insects. Ecol Res 10:125–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Masters GJ, Brown VK (1996) Host-plant mediated interactions between spatially separated herbivores: effects on community structure. In: Gange AC, Brown VK (eds) Mul-titrophic interactions in terrestrial ecosystems. 36th Symposium of the British Ecological Society. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  52. Masters GJ, Brown VK, Gange AC (1993) Plant mediated interactions between above- and below-ground insect herbivores. Oikos 66:148–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Masters GJ, Jones TH, Rogers M (2001) Host-plant mediated effects of root herbivory on insect seed predators and their parasitoids. Oecologia 127:246–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Matter SF (2001) Effects of above and below ground herbivory by Tetraopes tetraoph-thalmus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on the growth and reproduction of Asclepias syriaca (Asclepidacae). Env Entomol 30:333–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McEvoy PB, Rudd NT, Cox CS, Huso M (1993) Disturbance, competition, and herbivory effects on ragwort Senecio jacobaeae populations. Ecol Monogr 63:55–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McNaughton SJ, Banyikua FF, McNaughton MM (1998) Root biomass and productivity in a grazing ecosystem: The Serengeti. Ecology 79:587–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moran NA, Whitham TG (1990). Interspecific competition between root-feeding and leaf galling aphids mediated by host plant resistance. Ecology 71:1050–1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Morón-Rios A, Dirzo R, Jaramillo VJ (1997) Defoliation and below-ground herbivory in the grass Muhlenbergia quadridentata: effects on plant performance and on the root-feeder Phyllophaga sp. (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae). Oecologia 110:237–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Mortimer S, Van der Putten WH, Brown VK (1999) Insect and nematode herbivory below-ground: interactions and role in vegetation development. In: Olff H, Brown VK, Drent RH (eds) Herbivores: between plants and predators. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 205–238Google Scholar
  60. Müller H (1989) Structural analysis of the phytophagous insect guilds associated with the roots of Centaura maculosa Lam., C. diffusa Lam., and C. vallesiaca Jordan in Europe. Oecologia 78:41–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Müller-Shärer H (1991) The impact of root herbivory as a function of plant density and competition — survival, growth and fecundity of Centaurea maculosa in field plots. J Appl Ecol 28:759–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Murray PJ, Clements RO (1998) Transfer of nitrogen between clover and wheat: effect of root herbivory. Eur J Soil Biol 34:25–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Murray PJ, Hatch DJ (1994) Sitona weevils (Coleoptera; Curculionidae) as agents for rapid transfer of nitrogen from white clover (Trifolium repens L.) to perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.). Ann Appl Biol 125:29–33Google Scholar
  64. Murray PJ, Hatch DJ, Cliquet JB (1996) Impact of insect root herbivory on the growth and nitrogen and carbon contents of white clover (Trifolium repens) seedlings. Can J Bot 74:1591–1595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Notzold R, Blossey B, Newton E (1998) The influence of below ground herbivory and plant competition on growth and biomass allocation of purple loosestrife. Oecologia 113:82–93 Piearce TG (1978) Gut contents of some lumbricid earthworms. Pedobiologia 18:153–157Google Scholar
  66. Philipson JJ, Coutts MP (1979) The induction of root dormancy in Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. by abscisic acid. J Exp Bot 30:371–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Quinn MA, Hall MH (1992) Compensatory response of a legume root-nodule system to nodule herbivory by Sitona hispidulus. Entomol Exp Appl 64:167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rabe E (1990) Stress physiology: the functional significance of the accumulation of nitrogen-containing compounds. J Hortic Sci 65:231–243Google Scholar
  69. Ramsell J, Malloch AJC, Whittaker JB (1993) When grazed by Tipula paludosa, Lolium perenne is a stronger competitor of Rumex obtusifolius. J Ecol 81:777–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ridsdill-Smith TJ (1977) Effects of root-feeding by Scarabaeid larvae on growth of perennial ryegrass plants. J Appl Ecol 14:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ridsdill-Smith TJ, Roberts RJ (1976) Insect density effects in root feeding by larvae of Sericeothis nigrolineata (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). J Appl Ecol 13:423–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Ruess RW, Hendrick RL, Bryant JP (1998) Regulation of fine root dynamics by mammalian browsers in early successional Alaskan taiga forests. Ecology 79:2706–2720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ryle GJA, Powell CE (1975) Defoliation and regrowth in the graminaceous plant: the role of current assimilate. Ann Bot 39:297–310Google Scholar
  74. Salt DT, Fenwick P, Whittaker JB (1996a) Interspecific herbivore interactions in a high CO2 environment: root and shoot aphids feeding on Cardamine. Oikos 77:326–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Salt DT, Major E, Whittaker JB (1996b) Population dynamics of root aphids feeding on Sitka spruce in two commercial plantations. Pedobiologia 40:1–11Google Scholar
  76. Scott, JA, French NR, Leethan JW (1979) Patterns of consumption in grasslands. In: French NR (ed) Perspectives in grassland ecology. Ecological Studies 32. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 89–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sheppard AW, Aeschlimann J-P, Sagliocco J-L, Vitou J (1995) Below-ground herbivory in Carduus nutans (Asteraceae) and the potential for biological control. Biocontrol Sci Technol 5:261–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sibma L, Kort J, de Wit CT (1964) Experiments on competition as a means of detecting possible damage by nematodes. Jaarboek, Instituut voor biologischen scheikundig onderzoek van Landbouwgewassen 1964:119–124Google Scholar
  79. Smith JP, Schowalter TD (2001) Aphid-induced reduction of shoot and root growth in Douglas-fir seedlings. Ecol Entomol 26:411–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Stanton NL (1988) The underground in grasslands. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 19:573–589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Steinger T, Müller-Schärer H (1992) Physiological and growth responses of Centaurea maculosa (Asteraceae) to root herbivory under varying levels of interspecific plant competition and soil nitrogen availability. Oecologia 91:141–149Google Scholar
  82. Strong DR, Maron JL, Connors PG, Whipple A, Harrison S, Jefferies RL (1995) High mortality, fluctuation in numbers, and heavy subterranean insect herbivory in bush lupine, Lupinus arboreus. Oecologia 104:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Van Toi RWHM, Van der Sommen ATC, Boff MIC, et al. (2001) Plants protect their roots by alerting the enemies of grubs. Ecol Lett 4:292–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Verschoor BC (2001) Nematode-plant interactions in grasslands under restoration management. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  85. Vranjic JA, Ash JE (1997) Scale insects consistently affect roots more than shoots: the impact of infestation size on growth of eucalypt seedlings. J Ecol 85:143–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wallace HR (1974) The influence of root-knot nematode, Meloidogynejavanica, on photosynthesis and nutrient demand by roots of tomato plants. Nematologica 17:154–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wardle DA, Barker GM (1997) Competition and herbivory in establishing grassland communities: implications for plant biomass, species diversity and soil microbial activity. Oikos 80:470–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Whittaker JB (1979) Invertebrate grazing, competition and plant dynamics. In: Anderson RM, Turner BD, Taylor LR (eds) Population dynamics. Symposium of the British Ecological Society 20:207–222. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  89. Whittaker JB (1982) The effect of grazing by a chrysomelid beetle, Gastrophysa viridula> on growth and survival of Rumex crispus on a shingle bank. J Ecol 70:291–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Yeates GW, Bardgett RD, Cook R, Hobbs PJ, Bowling PJ, Potter JF (1997) Faunal and microbial diversity in three Welsh grassland soils under conventional and organic management regimes. J Appl Ecol 34:453–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Yeates GW, Saggar S, Denton CS, Mercer CF (1998) Impact of clover cyst nematode (Het-erodera trifolii) infection on soil microbial activity in the rhizosphere of white clover (Trifolium repens) — a pulse labelling experiment. Nematologica 44:81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Yeates GW, Bardgett RD, Mercer CF, Saggar S, Feltham CW (1999) The impact of feeding by five nematodes on 14C distribution in soil microbial biomass and nematodes: initial observations. N Z J Zool 26:87Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. B. Whittaker

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations