Second Generation Robotics

  • Alan Pugh
Part of the International Trends in Manufacturing Technology book series (MANUTECH)

Abstract

During the early years of their existence, industrial robots represented a solution in search of a problem. At the first International Symposium on Industrial Robots held in Chicago in 1970[1] the delegates were treated to a brief catalogue of robot applications in industries which were invariably hot, smelly and involved jobs requiring a great deal of muscle power. This was the era when the industrial robot was a mere curiosity and its existence was known only to a relatively few informed industrialists. It was the combination of the industrial robot with the problem of spot welding automobile bodies which allowed the versatility of the industrial robot to be properly exploited. This single application transformed the industrial robot scene overnight which resulted in an escalation of the number of robots employed in industry coupled with a liberal coverage in the media which in turn stimulated interest to extend the application of industrial robots to other industrial tasks.

Keywords

Welding Rubber Radar Marketing Expense 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Proc. 1st Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots,Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, April 1970.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    J. F. Engelberger, ‘Robotics in Practice’Kogan Page, London, 1980.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    G. J. Gleason and G. J. Agin, ‘A Modular Vision System for Sensor-controlled Manipulation and Inspection’. Proc. 9th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, SME, Washington, March 1979.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    P. F. Hewkin and M. A. D. Phil, ‘OMS — Optical Measurement System’ Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Robot Vision and Sensory Controls, IFS (Conferences) Ltd, Stratford-upon-Avon, England, April 1981.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    P. Villers, ‘Present Industrial Use of Vision Sensors for Robot Guidance’, Proc. 12th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, l’Association Française de Robotique Industrielle, Paris, June 1982.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    M. L. Baird, ‘SIGHT-l’: ‘A Computer Vision System for Automated IC Chip Manufacture’ IEEE Trans. Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. 8, No. 2 (1978).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    S. Kawato and Y. Hirata, ‘Automatic IC Wire Bonding System with TV Cameras’, SME Technical Paper AD79–880, 1979.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Johnston, E., ‘Spray Painting Random Shapes Using CCTV Camera Control’, Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Robot Vision and Sensory Controls, IFS (Conferences) Ltd, Stratford-upon-Avon, England, April 1981.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    H. Makino, N. Furuya, K. Soma and E. Chin, ‘Research and Development of the SCARA robot’, Proc. 4th International Conference on Production Engineering, Tokyo, 1980.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    D. E. Whitney and J. L. Nevins, What is the Remote Centre Compliance (RCC) and What Can it do?’ Proc. 9th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, SME, Washington, March 1979.Google Scholar
  11. [1l]
    T. J. Fountain, V. Geotcherian, ‘CLIP 4 Parallel Processing System’, IEEE Proc., V.l. 127, Pt. E, No. 5 (1980).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    S. W. Holland, L. Rossol and M. R. Ward, ‘Consight-1: A Vision Controlled Robot System for Transferring Parts from Belt Conveyors’. Computer Vision and Sensor Based Robots, G. G. Dodd and L. Rossol, Eds. Plenum Press, New York, 1979.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    R. C. Bolles, ‘Three Dimensional Locating of Industrial Parts’, 8th NSF Grantees Conference on Production Research and Technology, Stanford, Calif., January 1981.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    R. N. Nagel, G. J. Vender-Brug, J. S. Albus and E. Lowenfeld, ‘Experiments in Part acquisition Using Robot Vision’, SME Technical Paper MS79–784 1979.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    P. Saraga and B. M. Jones, ‘Parallel Projection Optics in Simple Assembly’, Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Robot Vision and Sensory Controls’, IFS (Conferences) Ltd, Stratford-upon-Avon, England, 1981.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    I. Mazaki, R. R. Gorman, B. H. Shulman, M. J. Dunne and H. Toda, ‘Arc Welding Robot with Vision’, Proc. 11th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, JIRA, Tokyo, October 1981.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    P. M. Taylor, G. E. Taylor, D. R. Kemp, J. Stein and A. Pugh, ‘Sensory Gripping System: The Software and Hardware Aspects’ Sensor Review, Vol. I, No. 4 (October 1981).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    A. J. Cronshaw, W. B. Heginbotham and A. Pugh, ‘Software Techniques for an Optically-tooled Bowl Feeder’, IEEE Conference ‘Trends in On-line Computer Control Systems’, Sheffield, England, Vol. 172, March 1979.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    J. H. Streeter, ‘Viewpoint — Vision for Programmed Automatic Assembly’, Sensor Review, Vol. I, No. 3 (July 1981).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    T. Goto, et. al., ‘Precise Insert Operation by Tactile Controlled Robot’, The Industrial Robot, Vol. 1, No. 5 (Sept. 1974).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    M. H. E. Larcombe, ‘Carbon Fibre Tactile Sensors’, Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Robot Vision and Sensory Controls, IFS (Conferences) Ltd., Stratford-upon-Avon, England, April 1981.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    J. A. Purbrick, ‘A Force Transducer Employing Conductive Silicone Rubber’ Ibid.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    N. Sato, W. B. Heginbotham and A. Pugh, ‘A method for three-dimensional Robot Identification by Tactile Transducer’, Proc. 7th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, DIRA, Tokyo, October 1977.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    S. S. M. Wang and P. M. Will, ‘Sensors for Computer Controlled Mechanical Assembly’, The Industrial Robot, Vol. 5, No. 1 (March 1978).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    J. E. Tanner and M. H. Raibert, ‘A VLSI Tactile Array Sensor’, Proc. 12th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, l’Association Française De Robotique Industrielle, Paris, June 1982.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    D. Nitzan, ‘Assessment of Robotic Sensors’, Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Robot Vision and Sensory Controls, IFS (Conferences) Ltd, Stratford-upon-Avon, England, April 1981.Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    Users Guide to VAL — Robot Programming and Control System’, Unimation Inc., Danbury, Conn.Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    B. Carlisle, ‘The PUMA/VS-100 Robot Vision System’, Proc. 1st Int. Conf. Robot Vision and Sensory Controls, IFS (Conferences) Ltd., Stratford-upon-Avon, England, April 1981.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    L. I. Leiberman and M. A. Nelsey, ‘AUTOMPASS — An Automatic Programming System for Computer Controlled Mechanical Assembly’, IBM Journal ofResearch and Development, Vol. 21, No. 4 (1977).Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    R. J. Popplestone, et. al., ‘RAPT: A Language for Describing Assemblies’, University of Edinburgh, UK, September 1978.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    J. Hollingum, ‘Robotics Institute Teams Development in University and Industry’. The Industrial Robot, Vol. 8, No. 4, December 1981.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    W. B. Heginbotham, D. W. Gatehouse, A. Pugh, P. W. Kitchin and C. J. Page, ‘The Nottingham SIRCH Assembly Robot’, Proc. 1st Conf. on Industrial Robot Technology, IFS Ltd., Nottingham, England, March 1973.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Y. Tosuboi and T. Inoue, ‘Robot Assembly Using TV Camera’, Proc. 6th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots’. IFS Ltd., Nottingham, England, March 1976.Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    D. Nitzan, ‘Robotic Automation at SRI’ Proc. ofMIDCON/79, Chicago, Illinois, November 1979.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    P. Saraga and D. R. Skoyles, ‘An Experimental Visually Controlled Pick and Place Machine for Industry’, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Pattern Recognition, IEEE Computer Society, Coronado, Calif., November 1976.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    D. A. Zambuto and J. E. Chaney, ‘An Industrial Robot with Mini-Computer Control’, Proc. 6th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, IFS (Conferences) Ltd., Nottingham, England, March 1976.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    J. R. Birk, R. B. Kelley and H. A. S. Martins, ‘An Orientating Robot for Feeding Workpieces Stored in Bins’, IEEE Trans. Systems Man and Cybernetics, Vol. 11, No. 2 (1981).Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    R. P. Kruger and W. B. Thompson, ‘A Technical and Economic Assessment of Computer Vision for Industrial Inspection and Robotic Assembly’ Proc. IEEE, Vol. 69, No. 12 (1981).Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    A. J. Cronshaw, ‘Automatic Chocolate Decoration by Robot Vision’, Proc. 12th Int. Symp. on Industrial Robots, l’Association Française de Robotique Industrielle, Paris, June 1982.Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    J. King and E. Lau, ‘Robotics in the UK’, The Industrial Robot, Vol. 8, No. 1 (March 1981).Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    P. G. Davey, ‘UK Research and Development in Industrial Robots’ 2nd International Conference on ‘Manufacturing Matters’, The Institution of Production Engineers, London, England, March 1982.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Pugh
    • 1
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electronic EngineeringUniversity of HullUK

Personalised recommendations