It must be first noted that, despite the title, quantum information theory is not the main topic of this chapter. Instead, we will merely concentrate on descriptional differences between presenting information by using classical and quantum systems. In fact, in this chapter, we will present the fundamentals of quantum information processing. A reader well aware of basic linear algebra will presumably have no difficulties in following this section, but for a reader feeling some uncertainty, we recommend consulting Sections 8.1, 8.2, and the initial part of Section 8.3. Moreover, the basic notions of linear algebra are outlined in Section 9.3.
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