Advertisement

Zusammenfassung

Bis zur Einführung des Äthers (1846) und des Chloroforms (1847) war Hypnose eines der wenigen wirksamen „Anästhetika“, vielleicht sogar das einzig wirklich wirksame. Wie zuweilen heute noch stieß aber auch damals Hypnose auf Unverständnis, Skepsis oder Ablehnung. So hatte der englische Chirurg John Elliotson (1843) über mehrere, unter Hypnose schmerzlos durchgeführte Operationen berichtet und daraufhin seine Anstellung sowie seine Mitgliedschaften in der Royal Medical und der Chirurgical Society verloren. James Esdaile berichtete 1846 über mehrere hundert ähnliche Operationen an Hindus in Indien, wobei als bemerkenswert hervorzuheben ist, daß die hypnotisch erzielte Schmerzkontrolle in beinahe 100% der Fälle gelang. Bei Europäern lag diese Rate jedoch wesentlich niedriger, so daß Hypnose von den anderen Anästhetika leicht verdrängt werden konnte. Gerade in jenen medizinisch-psychologischen Bereichen gewinnt Hypnose heute aber wieder an Bedeutung, wo die üblichen Analgetika in ihrer Wirkung versagen oder aus vielfältigen Gründen kontraindiziert sind.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Ahnan B, Carney R (1980) Consequences of direct and indirect suggestions of posthypnotic behavior. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 23: 112–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson JAD, Basker MA, Dalton R (1975). Migraine and hypnotherapy. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13: 48–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barber J (1977) Rapid induction analgesia: A clinical report. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 19: 138–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barber J, Adrian C (Eds.) (1982) PsycholgicalApproaches to the Management of Pain. New York, Brunner/ MazelGoogle Scholar
  5. Barber TX (1984) Changing “unchangeable” bodily processes by (hypnotic) suggestions: A new look at hypnosis, cognitions, imagining, and the mind-body problem. Advances, 1 (2): 7–40Google Scholar
  6. Barber TX, Hahn KW (1962) Physiological and subjective responses to pain producing stimulation under hypnotically-suggested and waking-imagined “analgesia”. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psycholgy, 65: 411–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barber TX, Spanos NP, Chaves JF (1974) Hypnotism: Imagination, and human potentialities. New York, PergamonGoogle Scholar
  8. Bernheim H (1888) Die Suggestion und ihre Heilwirkung. (Fotomechanischer Nachdruck der Ausgabe Leipzig und Wien, übers. von Sigmund Freud). Tübingen: edition diskordGoogle Scholar
  9. Bongartz W (1985) Was ist Hypnose? In B. Peter (Hrsg.), Hypnose und Hypnotherapie nach Milton H. Erickson. München, PfeifferGoogle Scholar
  10. Bongartz B, Bongartz W (1988) Hypnose: Was sie ist und wie sie wirkt. Zürich, KreuzGoogle Scholar
  11. Braid J (1883) Neurypnology, or the rational of nervous sleep, considered in relation with animal magnetism. London, ChurchillGoogle Scholar
  12. Carasso RL, Peded O, Kleinhauz M, Yehuda S (1985) Treatment of cervical headache with hypnosis, suggestive therapy, and relaxation techniques. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 27 (4): 216–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chapman CR, Feather BW (1973) Effects of diazepam on human pain tolerance and pain sensitivity. Psychosomatic Medicine, 35: 330–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cedercreutz C (1978) Hypnotic treatment of 100 cases of migraine. In: Frankel FH, Zamansky HS (Eds.) Hypnosis at its bicentennial. New York, Plenum PressGoogle Scholar
  15. Cedercreutz C, Lähteenmäki R, Tulikoura J (1976) Hypnotic treatment of headache and vertigo in skull injured patients. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24: 195–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Coe WC (1989) Was ist Hypnose? Eine kritische Analyse. Report Psychologie, 1 /89: 23–33Google Scholar
  17. DeBenedittis G, Panerai AA, Villamira MA (1989) Effects of hypnotic analgesia and hypnotizability on experimental ischemic pain. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37 (1): 55–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. DePiano FA, Salzberg HC (1979) Clinical applications of hypnosis to three psychosomatic disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 86: 1223–1235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. ElliotsonJ (1843) Numerous Cases of Surgical Operations without Pain in the Mesmeric State. Philadelphia, Lea and BlanchardGoogle Scholar
  20. Elton D, Burrows GD, Stanley GV (1979) Hypnosis in the management of chronic pain. In: Burrows GD, Collison DR, Dennerstein L (Eds.) Hypnosis 1979. Amsterdam, ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  21. Elton D, Burrws GD, Stanley GV (1980) Chronic pain and hypnosis. In: Burrows GD, Dennerstein L (Eds.) Handbook of Hypnosis and Psychosomatic Medicine. Amsterdam, ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  22. Erickson MH (1966) The interspersal hypnotic technique for symptom correction and pain control. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 8: 198–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Erickson MH (1967) An introduction to the study and application of hypnosis for pain controll. In Lassner J (Ed.) Hypnosis and Psychosomatic Medicine. New York, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  24. Erickson MH, Rossi EL (1981) Hypnotherapie. München, PfeifferGoogle Scholar
  25. Esdaile J (1846) Mesmerism in India and its Application to Surgery and Medicine. London (Reissued as: Hypnosis and Surgery. New York: Julian Press, 1957 )Google Scholar
  26. Evans MB, Paul GL (1970) Effects of hypnotically suggested analgesia on physiological and subjective response to cold stress. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 35: 362–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Franklin B (1785) Report of Dr. Benjamin Franklin and the other comissioners, charged by the King of France, with the examination of the animal magnetism, as now practiced in Paris. In: Tinterow MM (Ed.), Foundations of hypnosis: From Mesmer to Freud. Springfiel, C.C.ThomasGoogle Scholar
  28. Friction J (1981) The effect of direct and indirect hypnotic suggestions for analgesia in high and low susceptible subjects. Paper presented at the Third World Congress of Pain. Edinburgh, Scotland, Sept. 4: 11Google Scholar
  29. Gheorghiu VA (1986) Suggerierte Analgesie bei Intoleranz von Anästhetika: Zahnimplantation unter Hypnose. Hypnose und Kognition, 4 (1): 2–8Google Scholar
  30. Goldstein A, Hilgard ER (1975) Lack of influence of the morphine antagonist naloxone on hypnotic analgesia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 72: 2041–2043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gottfredson DK (1973) Hypnosis as an anesthetic in dentistry. Dissertation Abstracts International, 33 (7B): 3303Google Scholar
  32. Guerra G, Guantieri G, Tagliaro F (1985). Hypnosis and plasmatic beta-endorphins. In: Waxman D, Misra PC, Gibson M, Basker MA (Eds.) Modern Trends in Hypnosis. New York, Plenum PressGoogle Scholar
  33. Hilgard ER (1965) Hypnotic susceptibility. New York, Harcourt, Brace, WorldGoogle Scholar
  34. Hilgard ER (1967) A quantitative study of pain and its reduction through hypnotic suggestion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 57: 1581–1586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hilgard ER (1973) The domain of hypnosis: With some comments on alternative paradigms. American Psychologist, 23: 972–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hilgard ER (1977) Divided Consciousness: Multiple Controls in Human Thought and Action. New York, WileyGoogle Scholar
  37. Hilgard ER (1989) Eine Neodissoziationstheorie des geteilten Bewußtseins. Hypnose und Kognition, 6(2) Hilgard ER, Hilgard JR ( 1975 ) Hypnosis in the Relief of Pain. Los Altos, Calif., W KaufmannGoogle Scholar
  38. Hilgard ER, MacDonald H, Morgan AH, Johnson LS (1978) The reality of hypnotic analgesia: A comparison of highly hypnotizables with simulators. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87: 239–246Google Scholar
  39. Hilgard ER, Morgan AH (1975) Heart rate and blood pressure in the study of laboratory pain in man under normal conditions and as influenced by hypnosis. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 35: 741–759PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hilgard ER, Morgan AH, Lange AF, Lenox JR, MacDonald H, Marshall GH, Sachs LB (1974) Heart rate changes in pain and hypnosis. Psychophysiology, 11: 692–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hilgard JR (1974) Imaginative involement: Some characteristics of the highly hypnotizable and the non-hypnotizable. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 22: 138–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hilgard JR, LeBaron S (1982) Relief of anxiety and pain in children and adolescents with cancer: Quantitative measures and clinical observations. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30: 417–442Google Scholar
  43. Hilgard JR, LeBaron S (1984) Hypnotherapy of Pain in Children with Cancer. Los Altos, Calif., W. KaufmannGoogle Scholar
  44. Hoppe F (1985) Direkte und indirekte Suggestionen in der hypnotischen Beeinflussung chronischer Schmerzen: Empirische Untersuchungen. In: Peter B (Hrsg.) Hypnose und Hypnotherapie nach Mitlon H. Erickson. München, PfeifferGoogle Scholar
  45. Hoppe F (1986) Direkte und indirekte Suggestionen in der hypnotischen Beeinflussung chronischer Schmerzen. Frankfurt, Peter LangGoogle Scholar
  46. Hoppe F, Winderl E (1986) Hypnotische Schmerzlinderung: Erklärungsansätze, Vorgehensweise und Befunde. Hypnose und Kognition, 3 (1): 9–26Google Scholar
  47. Houle M, McGrath PA, Moran G, Garrett DJ (1988) The efficacy of hypnosis-and relaxation-induced analgesia on two dimensions of pain for cold pressor and electrical tooth pulp stimulation. Pain, 33(2): 241251Google Scholar
  48. Knox VJ, Gekoski WL,Shum K, McLaughlin DM (1981) Analgesia for experimentally induced pain. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90: 26–34Google Scholar
  49. Levine JD, Gordon NC, Fields HL (1978) Mechanism of placebo anesthesia. Lancet, 2: 654–657 McGlashan TH, Evans FJ, Orne MT (1969) The nature of hypnotic analgesia and the placebo response to experimental pain. Psychosomatic Medicine, 31: 227–246Google Scholar
  50. Melzack R, Perry D (1975) Self-regulation of pain: The use of alpha feedback and hypnotic training for the control of chronic pain. Experimental Neurology, 46: 452–469Google Scholar
  51. Miller MF, Barabasz AF (1988) Dissociation accounts for cold pressor pain reduction: A test of active alert and relaxation hypnotic inductions (zur Veröffentlichung eingereicht )Google Scholar
  52. Miller ME, Bowers ICE (1986) Hypnotic analgesia and stress inoculation in the reduction of pain. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95 (1): 6–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nolan RP, Spanos NP (1987) Hypnotic analgesia and stress inoculation: A critical reexamination of Miller and Bowers. Psychological Reports, 61 (1): 95–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Olness K, McDonald JT, Uden DL (1987) Comparison of self-hypnosis and propranolol in the treatment of juvenile classic migraine. Pediatrics, 79 (4): 593–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Peter B (1986) Hypnose: Magie oder Psychotherapie. In: Schorr A (Hrsg.) Bericht über den 13. Kongreß für angewandte Psychologie, Bonn, Sept. 1985. Bonn, Deutscher Psychologen VerlagGoogle Scholar
  56. Peter B (1986) Hypnotherapeutische Schmerzkontrolle: Ein Überblick. Hypnose und Kognition, 3 (1): 2741Google Scholar
  57. Peter B (1990) Hypnotische Phänomene. In Revenstorf D (Hrsg.) Handbuch der Klinischen Hypnose. Berlin, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  58. Peter B (Hrsg.) (1984) Bibliographie zum Leitthema: Hypnotherapie bei Krebserkrankungen. Hypnose und Kognition, 1 (1): 72–82Google Scholar
  59. Peter B (Hrsg.) (1986) Bibliographie: Psycho(physio)logische Aspekte und Behandlungen von Schmerz. Hypnose und Kognition, 3 (1, Sonderheft)Google Scholar
  60. Revenstorf D (1985) Nonverbale und verbale Informationsverarbeitung als Grundlage psychotherapeutischer Interventionen. Hypnose und Kognition, 2 (2): 13–35Google Scholar
  61. Revenstorf D, Peter B(1990) Theorien der Hypnose. In: Revenstorf D (Hrsg.) Handbuch der Klinischen Hypnose. Berlin, SpringerGoogle Scholar
  62. Schafer DW (1975) Hypnosis in a burn unit. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 23: 1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schmierer A (1985) Hypnose in der zahnärztlichen Praxis. In B. Peter (Hrsg.), Hypnose und Hypnotherapie nach Milton H. Erickson. München, PfeifferGoogle Scholar
  64. Sheehan PW, McConkey KM (1982) Hypnosis and experience: The exploration of phenomena and process. Hillsdale, Lawrence ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  65. Spanos NP, Barber TX, Lang G (1974) Cognition and self-control: Cognitive control of painful sensory input. In: London H, Nisbett RE (Eds.) Thought and Feeling: Cognitive Alteration of Feeling States. Chicago, AldineGoogle Scholar
  66. Spanos NP, Radtke-Bodorik HL, Ferguson JD, Jones B (1979) The effects of hypnotic susceptibility, suggestions for analgesia, and the utilisation of cognitive strategies on the reduction of pain. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88: 282–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stacher G, Schuster P, Bauer P, Lahoda R, Schulze D (1975) Effects of relaxation of analgesia on pain threshold and pain tolerance in the waking and in the hypnotic states. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 19: 259–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Stam HJ, Spanos NP (1987) Hypnotic analgesia, placebo analgesia, and ischemic pain: The effects of contextual variables. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96 (4): 331–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Stone J, Lundy R (1985) Behavioral compliance with direct and indirect body movements suggestions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94: 256–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sutcliffe JP (1960) “Credulous” and “sceptical” views of hypnotic phenomena. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 8: 73–110Google Scholar
  71. Sutcliffe JP (1960) “Credulous” and “sceptical” views of hypnotic phenomena: Experiments on esthesia, hallucination, and delusion. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62: 189–200Google Scholar
  72. Tellegen A, Atkinson G (1974) Openness to absorbing and self-altering experiences (“absorption”), a trait related to hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology: 83, 268–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Turner JA, Chapman CR (1982) Psychological interventions for chronic pain: A critical review. II: Operant conditioning, hypnosis, and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Pain, 12: 23–46Google Scholar
  74. Tripp EG, Marks D (1986) Hypnosis, relaxation and analgesia suggestions for the reduction of reported pain in high-and low-suggestible subjects. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 14 (2): 99–113Google Scholar
  75. Wadden TA, Anderton CH (1982) The clinical use of hypnosis. Psychological Bulletin, 91: 215–243 Wakeman RJ, Kaplan JZ (1978) An experimental study of hypnosis in painful burns. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 21: 3–11Google Scholar
  76. Weitzenhoffer AM, Hilgard ER (1959) Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Forms A and B. Palo Alto, Clif., Consulting Psychologists PressGoogle Scholar
  77. Winderl E (1986) Die hypnotische Therapie chronischer Schmerzen: Zur Wirksamkeit therapeutischer Anekdoten. Frankfurt, Peter LangGoogle Scholar
  78. Zeltzer L, LeBaron S (1982) Hypnosis and nonhypnotic techniques for reduction of pain and anxiety during painful procedures in children and adolescents with cancer. Journal of Pediatrics, 101: 1032–1035PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Zeltzer L, LeBaron S, Zeltzer P (1982) Hypnotic and nonhypnotic techniques for reduction of distress in children with cancer. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30: 207Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Peter

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations