• Math Buck
  • Dominiek Beckers
  • Susan S. Adler
Part of the Rehabilitation und Prävention book series (REHABILITATION, volume 22)


Die Voraussetzungen für das Gehen — mit oder ohne Gehhilfen — sind:
  1. 1.

    die Fähigkeit, eine aufrechtstehende Position einzunehmen,

  2. 2.

    die Fähigkeit, die Balance in dieser Position zu handhaben,

  3. 3.

    die Fähigkeit, jedes Bein einzeln und ohne Verlust der Balance zu bewegen.



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  1. Adler SS (1976) Influance of „Joint Approximation“ on lower extremity extensor muscles: an EMG study. Unpublished thesis presented at APTA annual conference, New OrleansGoogle Scholar
  2. Eberhart HD, Inman VT, Bresler B (1954) The principal elements in human locomotion. In: Klop-teg, PE, Wilson, PD (eds) human limbs and their substitutes. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Horak FB, Nashner LM (1986) Central programming of postural movements: adaptation to altered support-surface configurations. J Neuropyhsiol 55(6): 1381Google Scholar
  4. Inman VT, Ralston HJ, Todd F (1981) Human Walking. Williams & Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  5. Lerner-Frankiel MB, Vargas S, Brown M, Krusell L (1986) Functional community ambulation: What are your criteria? Clin Management 6(2): 12–15Google Scholar
  6. Murray MP, Drought AB, Kory RC (1964) Walking Patterns of normal men, J Bone Joint Surg [A] 46:335–360Google Scholar
  7. Nuzik S, Lamb R, VanSant A, Hirt S (1986) Sit-to stand movement pattern, a kinematic study. Phys Ther 66(11) 1708–1713PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Perry J (1967) The mechanics of walking, a clinical interpretation. In: Perry J, Hislop HJ (eds) Principles of lower extremity bracing. American Physical Therapy Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  9. Handbook Observational Gait Analysis. Rancho Los Amigos Medical Center.Google Scholar

Weiterführende Literatur Haltungskontrolle und Bewegung

  1. Finley FR, Cody KA (1969) Locomotive characteristics of urban pedestrians. Arch Phys Med Rehab 51:423–426Google Scholar
  2. Murray MP, Kory RC u. Sepic SB: Walking patterns of Normal Women. Arch Phys Med & Rehab (Nov): 637–650,1970.Google Scholar
  3. Gahery Y, Massion J (1981) Co-ordination between posture and movement. Trends Neurosei 4: 199–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Nashner LM, Woollacott M (1979) The organization of rapid postural adjustments of standing humans: an experimental-conceptual model. In: Talbott RE, Humphrey DR (ed) Posture and Movement. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Nashner LM (1980) Balance adjustments of human movement perturbed while walking. J Neuro-physiol 44(4)650–664Google Scholar
  6. Nashner LM (1982) Adaptation of human movement to altered environments. Trends Neurosei 5(Oct): 358–361Google Scholar
  7. Woollacott MH, Shumway-Cook A (1990) Changes in posture control across the life span — a systems approach. Phys Ther 70(12): 799–807PubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. Inman VT, Ralston HJ, Todd F (1981) Human walking. Williams and Wilkins, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  2. Kettelkamp DB, Johnson RJ, Schmidt GL et al (1970) An electrogoniometric study of knee motion in normal gait. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 52:775–790.Google Scholar
  3. Mann RA, Hagy JL, White V, Liddell D (1979) The initiation of gait. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 61-A(2): 232–239Google Scholar
  4. McFadyen BJ, Winter DA (1988) An integrated biomechanical analysis of normal stair ascent and descent. J Biomech 21(9): 733–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Murray MP, Drought AB, Kory RC (1964) Walking Patterns of Normal Men. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 46:335–360Google Scholar
  6. Murray MP, Kory RC, Sepic SB (1970) Walking patterns of normal women. Arch Phys Med Rehab (Nov): 637–650Google Scholar
  7. Nashner LM (1976) Adapting reflexes controlling the human posture. Exp Brain Res 26:59–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Perry J (1992) Gait Analysis, normal and pathological function. Slack, Thorofare NJGoogle Scholar
  9. Sutherland DH (1966) An electromyographic study of the plantar flexors of the ankle in normal walking on the level. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 48:66–71Google Scholar
  10. Sutherland DH, Cooper L, Daniel D (1980) The role of the ankle plantar flexors in normal walking. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 62:354–363Google Scholar
  11. Sutherland DH, Olshen R, Cooper L, Woo SL-Y (1980) The development of mature gait. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 62:336–353Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Math Buck
    • 1
  • Dominiek Beckers
    • 1
  • Susan S. Adler
    • 2
  1. 1.Samenwerkende Revalidatiecentral LimburgHoensbroekThe Netherlands
  2. 2.SuisunUSA

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