Regeneration of Plants from Protoplasts of Picea Species (Spruce)

  • L. Tremblay
  • F. M. Tremblay
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 29)


The genus Picea includes 37 species found principally in the north temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and North America. Among the seven species found in North America, five grow in Canada (Hosie 1980). Hybrids are commonly found between Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.], white spruce [P. glauca (Moench) Voss], and Engelmann spruce (P. engelmannii Parry) where their ranges overlap. Black spruce [P. mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] and red spruce (P. rubens Sarg.) also develop intermediate forms where they grow together, but there is no record of cross-breeding between white spruce and black spruce, nor between white spruce and red spruce (Hosie 1980). In addition to the native species, Norway spruce (P. abies L. Karst) and blue spruce (P. pungens Engelm.) can be found in some localities in Canada.


Somatic Embryo Immature Embryo Embryogenic Tissue Enzyme Mixture Protoplast Isolation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Tremblay
    • 1
  • F. M. Tremblay
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre de Recherche en Biologie Forestière, Faculté de Foresterie et de GéomatiqueUniversité LavalCanada
  2. 2.Petawawa National Forestry Institute through the Interchange Canada ProgrammeCanada

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