Regeneration of Plants from Protoplasts of Picea Species (Spruce)

  • L. Tremblay
  • F. M. Tremblay
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 29)

Abstract

The genus Picea includes 37 species found principally in the north temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and North America. Among the seven species found in North America, five grow in Canada (Hosie 1980). Hybrids are commonly found between Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.], white spruce [P. glauca (Moench) Voss], and Engelmann spruce (P. engelmannii Parry) where their ranges overlap. Black spruce [P. mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.] and red spruce (P. rubens Sarg.) also develop intermediate forms where they grow together, but there is no record of cross-breeding between white spruce and black spruce, nor between white spruce and red spruce (Hosie 1980). In addition to the native species, Norway spruce (P. abies L. Karst) and blue spruce (P. pungens Engelm.) can be found in some localities in Canada.

Keywords

Sucrose Marketing Immobilization Cellulase Fluores 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amerson HV, Frampton U, McKeand SE, Mott RL, Weir RJ (1985) Loblolly pine tissue culture: laboratory, greenhouse, and field studies. In: Henke RR, Hughes KW, Constantin MJ, Hollaender A (eds) Tissue culture in forestry and agriculture. Plenum Press, New York, pp 271–287Google Scholar
  2. Anonyme (1990) Recueil de statistiques forestières canadiennes. Rapport d’information E-X-44F, Direction de l’économie et des statistiques, Forêts Canada, gouvernement du CanadaGoogle Scholar
  3. Arya ID, Arya S, Eriksson T (1991) Protoplast isolation and culture from six embryogenic cell lines of Picea abies ( L. ). Physiol Plant 82: A13Google Scholar
  4. Attree SM, Bekkaoui F, Dunstan DI, Fowke LC (1987) Regeneration of somatic embryos from protoplasts isolated from an embryogenic suspension culture of white spruce (Picea glauca). Plant Cell Rep 6: 480–483Google Scholar
  5. Attree SM, Dunstan DI, Fowke LC (1989a) Initiation of embryogenic callus and suspension cultures, and improved embryo regeneration from protoplasts of white spruce (Picea glauca). Can J Bot 67: 1790–1795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Attree SM, Dunstan DI, Fowke LC (1989b) Plantlet regeneration from embryogenic protoplasts of white spruce (Picea glauca). Bio/Technology 7: 1060–1062Google Scholar
  7. Bekkaoui F, Dunstan DI (1989) Permeabilization of Picea glauca protoplasts to macromolecules. Can J For Res 19: 1316–1321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bekkaoui F, Saxena PK, Attree SM, Fowke LC, Dunstan DI (1987) The isolation and culture of protoplasts from an embryogenic cell suspension culture of Picea glauca ( Moench) Voss. Plant Cell Rep 6: 476–479Google Scholar
  9. Bekkaoui F, Pilon M, Lainé E, Raju DSS, Crosby WL, Dunstan DI (1988) Transient gene expression in electroporated Picea glauca protoplasts. Plant Cell Rep 7: 481–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bekkaoui F, Datla RSS, Pilon M, Tautorus TE, Crosby WL, Dunstan DI (1990). The effects of promoter on transient expression in conifer cell lines. Theor Appl Genet 79: 353–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Campbell RA, Durzan DJ (1975) Induction of multiple buds and needles in tissue cultures of Picea glauca. Can J Bot 53: 1652–1657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. David A (1987) Conifer protoplasts. In: Bonga JM, Durzan DJ (eds) Cell and tissue culture in forestry. Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht pp 2–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Duchesne LC, Charest PJ (1991) Transient expression of the beta-glucuronidase gene in embryogenic callus of Picea mariana following microprojection. Plant Cell Rep 10: 191–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Egertsdotter U, von Arnold S (1991) Protoplast culture from two different types of embryogenic cell lines of Picea abies. Physiol Plant 82: A13Google Scholar
  15. Ellis D (1993) Transformation in spruce (Picea species). In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 23. Plant protoplasts and genetic engineering IV. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 315–330Google Scholar
  16. Ellis DD, Mccabe D, Russell D, Martinell B, McCown BH (1991) Expression of inducible angiosperm promoters in a gymnosperm, Picea glauca (white spruce). Plant Mol Biol 17: 19–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fowke LC, Wang H (1992) Protoplasts as tools in cell biology. Physiol Plant 85: 391–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Fowke LC, Attree SM, Wang H, Dunstan DI (1990) Microtubule organization and cell division in embryogenic protoplast cultures of white spruce (Picea glauca). Protoplasma 158: 86–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Frearson EM, Power JB, Cocking EC (1973) The isolation, culture and regeneration of Petunia leaf protoplasts. Dev Biol 33: 130–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Good AG, Bekkaoui F, Pilate G, Dunstan DI, Crosby WL (1990) Anaerobic induction in conifers: expression of endogenous and chimeric anaerobically-induced genes. Physiol Plant 78: 441–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gupta PK, Durzan DJ (1987) Somatic embryos from protoplasts of loblolly pine proembryonal calls. Biotechnology 5: 710–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gupta PK, Dandekar AM, Durzan DJ (1988) Somatic proembryo formation and transient expression of luciferase gene in Douglas fir and loblolly pine protoplasts. Plant Sci 58: 85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hakman I, von Arnold S (1986) Isolation and DNA analysis of protoplasts from developing female gametophytes of Picea abies (Norway spruce). Can J Bot 64: 108–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hakman I, Fowke LC, von Arnold S, Eriksson T (1985) The development of somatic embryos in tissue cultures initiated from immature embryos of Picea abies ( Norway spruce ). Plant Sci 38: 53–60Google Scholar
  25. Hartmann S, Lang H, Reuther G (1992) Differentiation of somatic embryos from protoplasts isolated from embryogenic suspension culture of Abies alba L. Plant Cell Rep 11: 554–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hosie RC (1980) Native trees of Canada. 8th Can For Serv, Dep Environ, Editions Fidès, Canada, 380 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Ivanova E (1986) Intraspecific fusion of Norway spruce Picea abies protoplasts. Biologia 41: 841–846Google Scholar
  28. Kakoniova D, Liskova D (1985) The protoplast isolation, culture and fusion from tissue cultures of forest trees. Acta Univ Agric Brno, Czechoslovakia, 33: 315–317Google Scholar
  29. Kao KN, Michayluk MR (1975) Nutritional requirements for growth of Vicia hajastana cells and protoplasts at a very low population density in liquid medium. Planta 126: 105–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kartha KK, Fowke LC, Leung NL, Caswell NL, Hakman I (1988) Induction of somatic embryos and plantlets from cryopreserved cell cultures of white spruce (Picea glauca). J Plant Physiol 132: 529–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kirsten U, Jacob HE, Tesche M, Kluge S (1986) Isolation and electrical fusion of conifer protoplasts. Silvae Genet 35: 186–190Google Scholar
  32. Klein TM, Wolf ED, Wu R, Sandord JC (1987) High-velocity microprojectiles for delivering nucleic acids into living cells. Nature 327: 70–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Klimazewska K (1989) Recovery of somatic embryos and plantlets from protoplast cultures of Larix x eurolepis. Plant Cell Rep 8: 440–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lainé E, David A (1990) Somatic embryogenesis in immature embryos and protoplasts of Pinus caribaea. Plant Sci 69: 215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Litvay JD, Verma DC, Johnson MA (1985) Influence of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) culture medium and its components on growth and somatic embryogenesis of the wild carrot (Daucus carota L.). Plant Cell Rep 4: 325–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schenk RU, Hildebrandt AC (1972) Medium and techniques for induction and growth of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant cell cultures. Can J Bot 50: 199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shillito RD, Paszkowski J, Potrykus I (1983) Agarose plating and a bead type culture technique enable and stimulate development of protoplast-derived colonies in a number of plant species. Plant Cell Rep 2: 244–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Strmen J, Cierna M (1981) Cell wall regeneration of the spruce (Picea excelsa) tissue culture protoplasts. Colloq Int sur la Culture In Vitro des Essences Forestières. AFOCEL, Nangis, FranceGoogle Scholar
  39. Tautorus TE, Bekkaoui F, Pilon M, Datla RSS, Crosby WL, Fowke LC, Dunstan DI (1989) Factors affecting transient gene expreession in electroporated black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus hanksiana) protoplasts. Theor Appl Genet 78: 531–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tautorus TE, Attree SM, Fowke LC, Dunstan DI (1990) Somatic embryogenesis from immature and mature zygotic embryos, and embryo regeneration from protoplasts in black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.). Plant Sci 67: 115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tautorus TE, Wang H, Fowke LC, Dunstan DI (1992) Microtubule pattern and the occurrence of pre-prophase bands in embryogenic cultures of black spruce (Picea mariana Mill.) and nonembryogenic cultures of jack pine (Pinus hanksiana Lamb.). Plant Cell Rep 1 1: 419–423Google Scholar
  42. Tremblay FM (1990) Somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration from embryos isolated from stored seeds of Picea glauca. Can J Bot 68: 236–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tremblay L (1990) Etudes sur l’embryogenèse somatique chez Picea spp. MSc Thesis, Dep Forestry, Laval University, QuébecGoogle Scholar
  44. Tremblay L, Tremblay FM (1991) Carbohydrate requirements for the maturation of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill) B.S.P.) and red spruce (P. rubens Sarg.) somatic embryos. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 27: 95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tremblay L, Tremblay FM Somatic embryogenesis in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) and red spruce (P. rubens Sarg.). In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 30. Somatic embryogenesis and synthetic seed I. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (in press)Google Scholar
  46. von Aderkas P (1992) Embryogenesis from protoplasts of haploid European larch. Can J For Res 22: 397–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. von Arnold S, Eriksson T (1981) In vitro studies of adventitious shoot formation in Pinus contorta. Can J Bot 59: 870–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Widholm JM (1972) The use of fluorescein diacetate and phenosafranine for determining viability of cultured plant cells. Stain Technol 6: 169–194Google Scholar
  49. Wilson SM, Thorpe TA, Moloney MM (1989) PEG-mediated expression of GUS and CAT genes in protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of Picea glauca. Plant Cell Rep 7: 704–707Google Scholar
  50. Zoglauer K, Dembny H, Behrendt U, Süss R (1991) Protoplast isolation and culture from embryogenic callus lines of Picea ahies (L.) Karsten. Physiol Plant 82: Al 3Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Tremblay
    • 1
  • F. M. Tremblay
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre de Recherche en Biologie Forestière, Faculté de Foresterie et de GéomatiqueUniversité LavalCanada
  2. 2.Petawawa National Forestry Institute through the Interchange Canada ProgrammeCanada

Personalised recommendations