Photoemission of Valence Electrons from Metallic Solids in the One-Electron Approximation

  • Stefan Hüfner
Part of the Advanced Texts in Physics book series (ADTP)

Abstract

Solids are characterized with respect to the size of the energy gap between valence and conduction band as insulators, semiconductors or metals. In PES and IPES experiments, only metals possess an experimentally accessible (and generally accepted) zero of energy, namely the Fermi energy. The Fermi energy generally shows up as a step in the EDC’ and therefore it is a very convenient experimental reference point. In insulators and semiconductors (although they of course also have a Fermi energy, it does not usually show up clearly in the PE data) the top of the valence band or the bottom of the conduction band are often taken as the experimental zero of energy. These energy points, however, are not very well defined in the experimental spectra. In order to treat only the simplest possible case, the discussion in this chapter will be restricted to metals. The generalization to insulators or semiconductors is often straightforward.

Keywords

Anisotropy Agate Propa Refraction Azimuth 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Hüfner
    • 1
  1. 1.Fakultät für Physik und Elektrotechnik, Fachrichtung 7.2 — ExperimentalphysikUniversität des SaarlandesSaarbrückenGermany

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