Methodological Aspects Concerning the Environmental Risk Assessment for Medicinal Products — Research Challenges

  • M. H. M. M. Montforts

Abstract

The fate and behaviour of pharmaceuticals in the environment have been studied since several decades (Zondek and Sulman 1943; Soulides et al.1962; Tabak and Bunch 1970), and the presence and effects of residues in the environment is a concern that has been identified not long after that (Berland and Maestrini 1969; Manten 1971; Blume et al. 1976; Rurainski et al. 1977; Patten et al. 1980). More recently several reviews on use, emission, fate, occurrences and effects of pharmaceuticals have been published and at national and supra-national regulatory levels the environmental risks of pharmaceuticals are on the agenda (Roij and De Vries 1980; Römbke et al. 1996; Ternes 1999; Jørgensen and Halling-Sørensen 2000; Daughton and Jones-Lepp 2001; Kümmerer 2001; Dietrich 2002; Halling-Sørensen et al. 2002a; Boxall et al. 2004).

Keywords

Sludge Phytoplankton Sewage Denitrification Propranolol 

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. H. M. M. Montforts

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