Effects of Pharmaceuticals on Aquatic Invertebrates — The Example of Carbamazepine and Clofibric Acid

  • G. Nentwig
  • M. Oetken
  • J. Oehlmann

Abstract

Pharmaceuticals and their metabolites are widely distributed in the aquatic environment (Kümpel et al. 2001; Tixier et al. 2003). Concerns about potential ecological effects have been raised because these compounds are usually highly active, with the example of ethinyloestradiol and other oestrogens demonstrating that such compounds may cause effects already at concentrations between ı and ıo ng l−1 (Routledge et al. 1998). Though many data about the occurrence have been collected, not much is known in fact about possible impact on aquatic wildlife.

Keywords

Sewage Ibuprofen Carbamazepine Clonidine Naproxen 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Nentwig
  • M. Oetken
  • J. Oehlmann

There are no affiliations available

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