• B. N. Horn
  • M. Smyth
Part of the Pediatric Oncology book series (PEDIATRICO)


Ependymomas are relatively rare gliomas arising from the differentiated ependymal cell layer lining the ventricular system and central canal of the spinal cord. Intracranial ependymomas account for approximately 9% of all brain tumors in the population under 20 years of age, and are the third most common primary brain tumor in children (following astrocytomas and primitive neuroectodermal tumors). According to SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) data from 1975 until 1998, the annual incidence of ependymoma is 2.6 per million for the 0 to 14 age group, and 2.2 per million for the 0 to 20 age group (Ries et al. 1999). Population-based measurements of the incidence of spinal cord ependymoma in children are available from the Connecticut Tumor Registry. Between 1935 and 1973, 5 spinal cord ependymomas and 44 intracranial ependymomas were identified in the Connecticut population under 20 years of age; suggesting that spinal cord ependymoma represents approximately 10% of all ependymal tumors in children and young adults (Dohrmann et al. 1976). Another large institutional series confirmed that spinal cord ependymomas are rare in children under 10 years of age, accounting for less than 1% of all spinal tumors. After age 10, the incidence of spinal cord ependymoma increases, and it represents the majority of intramedullary tumors in patients older than 20 years (Constantini et al. 1997).


Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor Posterior Fossa Tumor Choroid Plexus Papilloma Choroid Plexus Carcinoma Myxopapillary Ependymomas 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

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  • B. N. Horn
  • M. Smyth

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