Proof of the Fermion Superselection Rule Without the Assumption of Time—Reversal Invariance

  • G. C. Hegerfeldt
  • K. Kraus
  • E. P. Wigner
Part of the The Scientific Papers book series (WIGNER, volume A / 3)


The superselection rule which separates states with integer angular momentum from those with halfinteger angular momentum is proved using only rotational invariance.


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  1. 1.
    G. C. Wick, A. S. Wightman, and E. P. Wigner, Phys. Rev. 88, 101 (1952).ADSCrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
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    This theorem is usually attributed to one of the present authors (E. P. W.), but it was probably known to others before. For a more recent proof, see V. Bargmann, J. Math. Phys. 5, 862 (1964).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    See E. P. Wigner, J. Math. Phys. 1, 409, 414 (1960).ADSCrossRefzbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    The demonstration given by Wigner [Ann. Math. 40, 149 (1939), p. 1771 still appears to be the most simple.Google Scholar
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    J. M. Jauch, Hety. Phys. Acta 33, 711 (1960); J. M. Jauch and B. Misra, ibid. 34, 699 (1961).Google Scholar
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    J. von Neumann, Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik (Julius Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1932 ) (English transi.: Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1955 ).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. C. Hegerfeldt
    • 1
  • K. Kraus
  • E. P. Wigner
  1. 1.Bundesministerium für Wissenschaftliche ForschungBonnGermany

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