Advertisement

Ethik

  • S. Husebø
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Wie alles menschliche Handeln ist auch und gerade das Tun des Arztes ethischen d. h. sittlichen Wertungen unterworfen. Diese führen zu gewichtigen Fragen, über die in der Medizin nur selten gesprochen werden, wie z. B.:
  • Wann beginnt das Leben?

  • Wann ist eine Therapie zu beenden?

  • Wo verläuft die Grenze zwischen aktiver und passiver Sterbehilfe?

  • Sind lebensbedrohliche Komplikationen immer zu behandeln?

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Ahronheim JC, Gasner MR (1990) The sloganism of starvation. Lancet 335: 278–279PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrae M (1994) Facing death. Physicians difficulties and coping strategies in cancer care. Medical Dissertations No 395, Ulna. UniversityGoogle Scholar
  3. Andrews M, Beel ER, Smith SA (1993) Dehydration in terminally ill patients–is it a appropiate palliative care? Postgrad Med J 93: 201–208Google Scholar
  4. Appleton Consensus (1992) International guidelines for decisions to forgo medical treatment. Proceedings of guidelines for non-treatment decicions. In: Tranoy KE (ed) Appleton Consensus, 5060 Soreidegrend/NorwegenGoogle Scholar
  5. Beck-Friis B (1993) Hospital based homecare of terminal ill cancer patients. The Motala model. Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine 309. Uppsala UniversityGoogle Scholar
  6. Beleites M (1997) Entwurf der Richtlinie der Bundesärztekammer zur ärztlichen Sterbebegleitung und den Grenzen zumutbarer Behandlung. Dtsch Ärzteb194/20: 1064–1065Google Scholar
  7. Boisvert M (1990) About an „unconfirmed“ stand. J Palliat Care: 2: 5–7Google Scholar
  8. Bolund C (1985) Suicide and cancer: II. Medical and care factors in suicide by cancer patients in Sweden 1973–1976. J Psychosoc Oncol 3: 17–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brock D (1993) Life and death. Philosophical essays in medical ethics. Cambridge Univ Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  10. Bruera E (1994) Ethical Issues in palliative care research. J Palliat Care 10 /3: 7–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Buchanan AE, Brock DW (1989) Deciding for others. Cambridge Univ Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  12. Buckman R (1996) Talking to patients about cancer. No excuse now for not doing it. BMJ 313: 699–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Callahan D (1991) Medical futility, medical necessity: the problem without a name. Hastings Center Report 21: 30–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cassel EJ (1982) The nature of suffering and the goals of medicine. N Engl J Med 305: 639–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cherny NI, Coyle N, Foley KM (1994a) Suffering in the advanced cancer patient: a definition and taxonomy. J Palliat Care; 10: 57–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cherny NI, Coyle N, Foley KM (1994b) The treatment of suffering when patients request elective death. J Palliat Care 10: 71–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cherny NI, Portenoy EK (1994) Sedation and the management of refractory symptoms: Guidelines for evaluation and treatment. J Palliat Care 10: 31–38Google Scholar
  18. Chochinov HM, Wilson KG (1995) The euthanasia debate: attitudes, practices and psychiatric considerations. Can J Psychiatry 4o: 593–602Google Scholar
  19. Cohen S (ed) (1989) Casebook on the termination of life sustaining treatment and the care of the dying. Indiana Univ Press, IndianaGoogle Scholar
  20. Condrau G (1991) Der Mensch und sein Tod. Kreuz-Verlag, ZürichGoogle Scholar
  21. Downie RS, Calman KC (1994) Healthy respect: ethics in health care. Oxford Univ Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  22. Dunstan GR, Shinebourne EA (eds) (1989) Doctor’s decisions: ethical conflicts in medical practice. Oxford Univ Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  23. Eser A, Lutterotti M, Sproken P (1992) Lexikon Medizin-Ethik-Recht. Herder, Freiburg i. Br.Google Scholar
  24. Fainsinger R, Bruera E (1994) Management of dehydration in terminally ill patients. J Palliat Care 10: 55–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fallowfield L (1997) Truth sometimes hurts, but deceit hurts more. In: Surbone A, Zwitter M (eds) Communication with the cancer patient. Information and truth. Ann N Y Acad Sci 809: 525–537Google Scholar
  26. Foley KM (1985) The treatment of cancer pain. N Engl J Med 313: 84–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Foley KM (1991) The relationship of pain and symptom management to patient request for physician-assisted suicide. J Pain Symptom Manage 6: 289–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gaylin W et al. (1988) Doctors must not kill. JAMA 259: 2139–2140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harris J (1985) The value of life. Routledge & Kegan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Husebo S (1989) Is Euthanasia a caring thing to do? J Palliat Care 4: 111–114Google Scholar
  31. Husebo S (1991) Er aktiv dodshjelp et alternativ? Samtiden 91 /6: 24–32Google Scholar
  32. Husebo S (1992) Medisin - kunst eller vitenskap. Ad Notam Gyldendal, OsloGoogle Scholar
  33. Husebo S (1993) Autonomi og paternalisme–hva betyr det ved alvorlig sykdom? Omsorg 3: 61–66Google Scholar
  34. Husebo S (1997) Communication, autonomy and hope. How can we treat serious ill patients with respect? In: Surbone A, Zwitter M (eds) Communication with the cancer patient. Information and truth. Ann N Y Acad Scie 809: 440–460Google Scholar
  35. Husebo S (1997) Undervisning i palliativ medisin. Omsorg 3Google Scholar
  36. Husebo S, Tausjo J (1986) Dying patients in hospital. Tidsskr Nor Leegef 10: 2233–2235Google Scholar
  37. James CR, MacLeod RD (1993) The problematic nature of education in palliative care. J Palliat Med 9: 5–10Google Scholar
  38. Jecker NS, Pearlman RA (1992) Medical futility: who decides. Arch Intern Med 152: 1140–1144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jens W, Küng H (1995) Menschenwürdig sterben. Piper, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  40. Kant I (Ausg 1989 ) Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten. In: Weischedel W (Hrsg) Kant: Kritik der praktischen Vernunft. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am MainGoogle Scholar
  41. Kemp P (1992) Medisin, teknikk og etikk. Munksgaard, Copenhagen Kierkegaard S ( 1859, Ausg 1994 ) Fra en forfatters virksomhet (Aus dem Wirken eines Verfassers). Eine einfache Mitteilung. Sören Kierkegaard Gesammelte Werke. Munksgaard, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  42. Klaschik E, Husebo S (1997) Palliativmedizin. Anaesthesist 46: 177–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lögstrup KE (1989) Den etiske fordring, 12. Aufl. Gyldendal, Copenhagen (1. Aufl. 1956 )Google Scholar
  44. McCann RM, Hal WJ, Groth Juncker A (1994) Comfort care for the terminally ill patients, the appropriate use use nutrition and hydration. JAMA 272: 1263–1266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Morgan JD (ed) (1996) Ethical Issues in the care of the dying and bereaved aged. Baywood, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Moulin DE, Latimer, EJ, MacDonald N et al. (1994) Statement on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. J Palliat Med 10: 80–81Google Scholar
  47. Mount BM, Hamilton P (1994) When palliative care fails to control suffering. J Palliat Care 10: 24–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Musgrave CF, Opstad B, Opstad J (1995) The sensation of thirst in patients receiving iv. hydration. J Palliat Care 11: 17–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Pellegrino ED, Thomasma DC (1994) The virtues in medical practice. Oxford Univ Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  50. Quill TE, Cassell TK, Meier DE (1992) Care of the hopelessly ill. Proposed criteria for physician-assisted-suicide. N Engl J Med 327: 1380–1384Google Scholar
  51. Rachels J (1975) Active and passive euthanasia. N Engl J Med 292: 78–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Randall F, Downie RS (1996) Palliative care ethics. A good companion. Oxford Medical Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  53. Roy D (1990) Euthanasia–taking a stand. J Palliat Med 1: 3–5Google Scholar
  54. Roy DJ (1991) Relief of suffering: the doctor’s mandate. J Palliat Care 7: 3–4Google Scholar
  55. Scott JF, MacDonald N (1994) Education in palliative medicine. In: Doyle D, Hanks J, Macdonald N (eds) Oxford textbook of palliative medicine, pp 761–781Google Scholar
  56. Singer PA, Siegler M (1990) Euthanasia–a critique. N Eng J Med 322: 1881–1883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Smith GP (1995) Restructuring the principle of medical futility. J Palliat Med 11 /3: 9–16Google Scholar
  58. Sullivan RJ (1993) Accepting death without artificial nutrition or dehydration. J Gen Intern Med 8: 220–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ten Have HAMJ, Welie JVM (1996) Euthanasia in the Netherlands. Crit Care Clin 12: 97–108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Tolstoj L ( 1884, Ausg 1994 ) Der Tod des Iwan Iljitsch. Insel TaschenbuchGoogle Scholar
  61. Toulmin S (1982) How medicine saved the life of ethics. Perspect Biol Med 32: 72–79Google Scholar
  62. Tranoy KE (1992a) Medisinsk etikk i vâr tid. Sigma forlag, 5060 Sr reidegrend/NorwegenGoogle Scholar
  63. Tranoy KE (1992) Nobel conference on ethics in medicine. International review on health legislation. World Health Organization, Geneva Twycross RG (1993) Symptom control: The problem areas. J Palliat Med 7: 1–8Google Scholar
  64. Van der Wal G, Van der Maas PJ, Bosma JM (1996) Evaluation of the notification procedure for physician assisted suicid, and other medical practices ivolving the end of life in the Netherlands. N Engl J Med 335: 1706–1711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wilkinson J (1990) The ethics of euthanasia. Palliat Med 4: 81–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. World Medical Association (1987) Declaration on euthanasia. Ferney-Voltaire, ParisGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Husebø

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations