Infektiöse und obstruktive Krankheiten des Respirationstraktes

  • D. Nadal
  • J. Seidenberg
  • J. Forster
  • C. Rieger
  • K. Paul
  • F. Riedel
  • R. Szczepanski
  • W. Thal
  • H. von der Hardt
  • H. Skopnik
  • T. G. Wenzl
  • J. Freihorst
  • M. Götz
  • J. Roesler
  • U. Bienzle
  • T. Frischer
  • K. Magdorf


Es werden Infekte der oberen und Infekte der unteren Atemwege unterschieden. Bezüglich der Infektionserreger stellen aber die Atemwege von der Nase bis zu den Alveolen ein Kontinuum dar. Gewisse Erreger zeigen Vorliebe für bestimmte Abschnitte der Atemwege (Abb. 8.1).


  1. American Academy of Pediatrics (1997) Red Book. Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases, 24th edn. Elk Grove Village, ILGoogle Scholar
  2. Cressman WR, Myer CM III. (1994) Diagnosis and management of croup. Pediatr Clin North Am 41:265 – 276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Gwaltney JM (1996) Acute community-acquired sinusitis. Clin Infect Dis 23:1209–1225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Horowitz IN (1996) Staphylococcal tracheitis, pneumonia, and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatr Emergency Care 12:288–290Google Scholar
  5. Isaacson G (1996) Sinusitis in childhood. Pediatr Clin North Am 43:1297–1318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Kaplan EL (1994) Understanding group A streptococcal infections in the 1990 s: Proceedings of a symposium. Pediatr Inf Dis J 13:557–583Google Scholar
  7. Linder T, Funke G, Schmid St, Nadal D (1996) Die akute Otitis media und der Tubenmittelohrkatarrh: ein Überblick über die Pathogenese und Empfehlungen zur Therapie. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 126:2223–2233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Long SS, Pickering LK, Prober CG (eds) (1997) Principles and practice of pediatric infectious diseases. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 197–245Google Scholar
  9. Mims CA, Playfair JHL, Roitt IM et al. (1993) Medical microbiology. Upper respiratory tract infections. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 20.1 – 20.10Google Scholar
  10. Nicklaus PJ, Kelley PE (1996) Management of deep neck infection. Pediatr Clin North Am 43:1277 – 1296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Ausejo M, Saenz A, Pham B et al. (2000) Glucocorticoids for croup. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2) CD001955Google Scholar
  12. Castro-Rodriguez JA, Holberg CI, Morgan WJ et al. (2001) Relation of two different subtypes of croup before age three to wheezing, atopy, and pulmonary function during childhood: a prospective study. Pediatrics 107 (3): 512–518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fitzgerald D, Mellis C, Johnson M et al. (1996) Nebulized budenoside is as effective as nebulized adrenaline in moderately severe croup. Pediatrics 97:722–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Griffin S, Ellis S, Fitzgerald-Barron A et al. (2000) Nebulized steroid in the treatment of croup: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Br J Gen Pract 50 (451): 135 – 141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Neto GM, Kentab O, Klassen TP, Osmond MH (2002) A randomized trial of mist in the acute treatment of moderate croup. Acad Emerg Med 9:873–879PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Nicolai T, Mutius E von (1996) Risk of asthma in children with a history of croup. Acta Paediatr 85:1295 – 1299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Van Bever HP, Wieringa MH, Weyler JJ et al. (1999) Croup an recurrent croup: their association with asthma and allergy. An epidemiological study on 5–8-year-old children. Eur J Pediatr 158:253 – 257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Waisman Y, Klein BL, Boenning DA et al. (1992) Prospective randimized double-blind study comparing L-epinephrine and racemic epinephrine aerosols in the treatment of laryngotracheitis (croup). Pediatrics 89:302–306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Weber JE, Chudnofsky CR, Younger JG et al. (2001) A randomized comparison of helium-oxygen mixture (Heliox) and racemic epinephrine for the treatment of moderate to severe croup. Pediatrics 107: E96Google Scholar
  20. Westley CR, Cotton EK, Brooks JG (1978) Nebulised racemic epinephrine by IPPB for the treatment of croup. Am J Dis Child 132: 484–487PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Deseases and Committee of Fetus and Newborn (1998) Prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infections: indications for the use of palivizumab and updaten on the use of RSV-IGIV. Pediatrics 102: 1211–1216Google Scholar
  22. Committee on Infectious Diseases (1996) Reassessment of the indication for ribavirin therapy in respiratory syncytial virus infection. American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics 97:137 – 140Google Scholar
  23. Bardin PG, Johnston SL, Pattemore PK (1992) Viruses as precipitants of asthma symptoms: II. Physiology and mechanisms. Clin Exp Allergy 22:809–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dezateux C, Fletcher ME, Dundas I, Stocks J (1997) Infant respiratory function after RSV-proven bronchiolitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 155:1349–1355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Forster J, Schumacher RF (1995) The clinical picture presented by premature neonates infected with the respiratory syncytial virus. Eur J Pediatr 154:901–905PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Garrison MM, Christakis DA, Harvey E et al. (2000) Systemic corticosteroids in infant bronchiolitis: A meta-analysis. Pediatrics 105: E44Google Scholar
  27. Hall CB, Powell KR, Schnabel KC et al. (1988) Risk of secondary bacterial infection in infants hospitalized with respiratory syncytial viral infection. J Pediatr 113:266 – 271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kellner JD, Ohlsson A, Gadomski AM, Wang EEL (2002) Bronchodilators for bronchiolitis (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library , Issue 3. Update Software, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  29. McKean M, Ducharme F (2002) Inhaled steroids for episodic viral wheeze of childhood (Cochrane Review). ln:The Cochrane Library, Issue 3. Update Software, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  30. Navas L, Wang EEL, Carvalho V, Robinson J (1992) Improved outcome of respiratory syncytial virus infection in a high risk hospitalized population of Canadian children. J Pediatr 121:348–355PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Soong WJ, Hwang B, Tang RB (1993) Continous positive airway pressure by nasal prongs in bronchiolitis. Pediatr Pulmol 16:163–166Google Scholar
  32. Stein RT, Sherrill D, Morgan WJ et al. (1999) Respiratory syncytial virus in early life and risk of wheeze and allergy by age 13 years. Lancet 354:541–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Varnholt V, Lasch P, Suske G et al. (1996) ARDS infolge schwerer RSV-ln-fektion: Therapeutische Optionen. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 144:1364–1368Google Scholar
  34. Park JY, Elshami AA, Kang DS, Jung TH (1996) Plastic bronchitis. Eur Respir J 9:612–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Müller W, Hardt H von der, Rieger CHL (1987) Idiopoathic and symptomatic plastic bronchitis in childhood. Respiration 52:214–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Müller W, Hardt H von der, Rieger CHL (1986) Diagnostic implications and treatment of massive spontaneous atelectasis in childhood. Pediatr Pulmonol 2:65–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Jett JR, Tazelaar HD, Keim LW, Ingrassia TS (1991) Plastic bronchitis: An old disease revisited. Mayo Clin Proc 66:305 – 311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Epler GR (1988) Bronchiolitis obliterans and airways obstruction associated with graft-versus-host disease. Clin Chest Med 9:551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Kim MJ, Lee KY (1996) Bronchiolitis obliterans in children with Stevens-Johnson syndrome: follow-up with high resolution CT. Pediatr Radiol 26:22–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Laraya-Cuasay LR (1989) The interstitial pneumonias. Bronchiolitis obliterans with interstitial pneumonia. In: Laraya-Cuasay LR (ed) Interstitial lung diseases in children, vol III. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 123–127Google Scholar
  41. Mauad T, Dolhnikoff M, and the São Paulo Bronchiolitis Obliterans Study Group (2002) Histology of childhood bronchiolotis obliterans. Pediatr Pulmonol 33:466–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Müller NL, Miller RR (1995) Diseases of the bronchioles: CT and histopathologic findings. Radiology 196:3 – 12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Philit F, Wiesendanger T, Archimbaud E et al. (1995) Post: Post-transplant obstructive lung disease (»bronchiolitis obliterans«): a clinical comparative study of bone marrow and lung transplant patients. Eur Respir J 8:551 – 558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Schultz KR, Green GJ, Wensley D et al. (1994) Obstructive lung disease in children after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Blood 84/9:3212–3220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Whitehead B, Scott JP, Helms P et al. (1992) Technique and use of trans-bronchial biopsy in children and adolescents. Pediatr Pulmonol 12/4:240–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Whitehead BF, Stoehr C, Finkle G et al. (1995) Analysis of broncho-alveolar lavage from human lung transplant recipients by flow cytometry. Respir Med 89:27–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Workman DL, Clancy J (1994) Interstitial pneumonitis and lymphocytic bronchiolitis/bronchitis as a direct result of acute lethal graft-versus-host disease duplicate the histopathology of lung allograft rejection. Transplantation 58:207 – 213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Yousem SA (1993) Histological diagnosis of lung rejection. In: Rose ML, Yacoub MH (eds) Immunology of heart and lung transplantation. Edward Arnold, London Boston Melbourne Auckland, pp 152 – 165Google Scholar
  49. Zeevi A, Rabinowich H, Yousem SA et al. (1991) Presence of donor-specific alloreactivity in histologically normal lung allografts is predi-cive of subsequent bronchiolitis obliterans. Transplant Proc 23:1128–1129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Aalbers R, Smith M, Timens W (1993) Immunohistology in bronchial asthma. Respir Med 87:13–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Berchl D, Fischer T, Rutinhauser M (2002) Das Stufenkonzept zur Asthmatherapie der Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Pneumologie. Monatsschr der Kinderheilkd 150:766–774Google Scholar
  52. Barnes PJ, Pedersen S (1993) Efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids in asthma. Am Rev Respir Des 148: 21 – 26Google Scholar
  53. Barnes PJ, Pedersen S, Busse WW (1998) Efficacy and safety of inhaled corticosteroids. New developments. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157:S1-S53Google Scholar
  54. Bierman CW, Pearlman DS (1990) Asthma. In: Kendig EL, Chernick V (eds) Disorders of the respiratory tract in children. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 557–600Google Scholar
  55. Braun-Lahrländer C, Riedler J, Herz U et al. (2002) Environmental exposure to entdotoxin and its relation to asthma in school-age children. N Engl J Med 37:869–877Google Scholar
  56. Griese M (1996) Aerosolapplikation bei Asthma bronchiale im Säuglings-, Kindes- und Jugendalter. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 144:302–312Google Scholar
  57. Holgate ST, Bradding P, Sampson AP (1996) Leukotriene antagonists and synthesis inhibitors: New directions in asthma therapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 98:1 – 13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Johnson M (1996) Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of inhaled glucocorticoids. J Allergy Clin Immunol 97:169–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Johnston SL, Pattemore PK, Sanderson G et al. (1995) Community study of role of viral infections in exacerbations of asthma in 9–11 year old children. Br Med J 310:1225–1229Google Scholar
  60. Lau S, Iilis S, Sommerfeld C et al. (2000) Early exposure to house-dust unite and cat allergens and development of childhood asthma: a cohort study. Lancet 356:1392–1397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ream RS, Loftis LL, Albes GM et al. (2001) Effiacaa of IV Theophyllin in children with severe statum anthmaticus. Cheat 119:1480–1488Google Scholar
  62. Martinez FD, Wright AL, Taussig LM et al. and the Group Health Medical Associates (1995) Asthma and wheezing in the first six years of life. N Engl J Med 332:133–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Nicolai T (1995) Therapie des akuten Asthmaanfalles. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 143:1261 – 1272Google Scholar
  64. Oswald H, Phelan PD, Lanigan A et al. (1994) Outcome of childhood asthma in mid-adult life. Br Med J 309:95 – 96Google Scholar
  65. Sears MR, Burrows B, Flannery EM et al. (1991) Relation between airway responsiveness and serum IgE in children with asthma and in apparently normal children. N Engl J Med 325:1067–1071PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Silverman M (1995) Childhood asthma and other weezing disorders. Chapman & Hall, London, pp 1 – 6Google Scholar
  67. AG Asthmaschulung (2001) Qualitätssicherung in der Asthmaschulung von Kindern und Jugendlichen. Zuckschwerdt, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  68. Bernard-Bonnin A-C, Stachenko S, Bonin D et al. (1995) Seifmanagement teaching programs and morbidity of pediatric asthma: A meta-analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 95:34–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Brockmann G, Wegner RE (1998) Familienorientiertes Asthmatraining. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  70. Broda M, Muthny FA (1990) Umgang mit chronisch Kranken. Thieme, Stuttgart New YorkGoogle Scholar
  71. Bundesministerium für Gesundheit (1999) Gesundheitliche Aufklärung und ambulante Schulung zur Sekundärprävention asthmakranker Kinder und Jugendlicher. Nomos VerlagsgesellschaftGoogle Scholar
  72. Chanez P, Bousquet J, Michel F, Godard P (1996) From genetics to quality of life. The optimal treatment and management of asthma. Hogrefe&Huber, Seattle Toronto Bern GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  73. Clark N, Starr-Schneidkraut NJ (1994) Management of asthma by patients and families. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:554–566Google Scholar
  74. Colland V (1993) Learning to cope with asthma: a behavioural self-management program for children. Patient Educ Counseling 22:141–152Google Scholar
  75. Creer T, Levstek D (1996) Medication compliance and asthma: Overlooking the trees because of the forest. J Asthma 33/4:203–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Gebert N, Hümmelink R, Könning J et al. (1998) Efficacy of a self-management program for childhood asthma — A prospective controlled study. Patient Educ Counseling 35:213–220Google Scholar
  77. Gordon T, Edwards W (1997) Patientenkonferenz. Hoffmann&Campe, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  78. Könning J, Szczepanski R, Schlippe A von (1997) Betreuung asthmakranker Kinder im sozialen Kontext, 2. Aufl. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  79. Lecheler J, Biberger A, Klocke M et al. (1999) AVT-Asthmaverhaltenstraining. Ina Verlag, BerchtesgadenGoogle Scholar
  80. Lob-Corzilius T, Petermann F (1997) Asthmaschulung-Wirksamkeiten bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Beltz, WeinheimGoogle Scholar
  81. Mellins R, Ivans D, Zimmerman B, Clark N (1992) Patient Compliance. Are we wasting our time and don’t know it? Am Rev Respir Dis 146:1376–1377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Michels HP (1996) Chronisch kranke Kinder und Jugendliche — Psychosoziale Betreuung und Rehabilitation. DGVT, TübingenGoogle Scholar
  83. Petermann F (1997) Patientenschulung und Patientenberatung. Ein Lehrbuch. Hogrefe, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  84. Petermann F (1998) Compliance und Selbstmanagement. Hogrefe, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  85. Scholtz W, Haubrock M, Lob-Corzilius T et al. (1996) Kosten nutzen Untersuchung bei ambulanten Schulungsmaßnahmen für asthmakranke Kinder und ihre Familien. Pneumologie 50:538–543PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Szczepanski R, Gebert N, Hümmelink R et al. (1996) Ergebnis einer strukturierten Asthmaschulung im Kindes- und Jugendalter. Pneumologie 50:544–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Szczepanski R, Lecheler J (1995) Standards und Qualitätssicherung der Asthmaschulung im Kindes- und Jugendalter. Präv Rehab 7:1 – 32Google Scholar
  88. Szczepanski R, Könning J, Lob-Corzilius T et al. (1993) Analyse zur gegenwärtigen Situation der Asthmaschulung für Kinder und Jugendliche im deutschsprachigen Raum. Pneumologie 47: 83–587Google Scholar
  89. Theiling S, Szczepanski R, Lob-Corzilius T (2001) Der »Luftiku(r)s«, 3. Aufl. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  90. Wittenmeier M, Bünder U, Korsch E (1997) Kölner Puste-Pänz. In: Bundesministerium für Gesundheit (Hrsg) Praxishandbuch des Modellprojektes »Gesundheitliche Aufklärung und ambulante Schulung zur Sekundärprävention asthmakranker Kinder und Jugendlicher«. Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, BonnGoogle Scholar
  91. Mantel K, Nicolai T, Merkenschläger A (Hrsg) (1995) Kinderbron-choskopie-Leitfaden. Demeter, BalingenGoogle Scholar
  92. Székely E, Farkas E (1978) Pediatric bronchiology. Akad Kindó, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  93. Thal W (1972) Kinderbronchologie. Barth, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  94. Belafsky PC, Postma GN, Amin MR, Koufman JA (2002) Symptoms and findings of laryngopharyngeal reflux. Ear Nose Throat J 81 (Suppl2):10–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Beyaert C, Marchai F, Dousset B et al. (1995) Gastroesophageal reflux and acute life-threatening episodes. Role of a central respiratory depression. Biol Neonate 68:87–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Bruckheimer E, Goldberg M, Lernau O (1991) Sandifer’s syndrome reported and reviewed. Pediatr Surg Int 6:210–213Google Scholar
  97. Fonkalsrud EW, Ashcraft KW, Coran AG et al. (1998) Surgical Treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in children: A combined hospital study of 7467 patients. Pediatrics 101:419–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kiljander TO, Salomaa ERM, Hietanen EK, Terho EO (1999) Gastroesophageal reflux in asthmatics. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study with omeprazole. Chest 116:1257–1264PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Larrain A, Carrasco E, Galleguillos F et al. (1991) Medical and surgical treatment of nonallergic asthma associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Chest 99:1330–1335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Hassall E (1995) Wrap session: is the Nissen slipping? Can medical treatment replace surgery for severe gastroesophageal reflux disease in children? Am J Gastroenterol 90:1212–1220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Mittal RV, Balaban DH (1997) The esophagogastric junction. N Engl J Med 336:924–932PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Peter CS, Sprodowski N, Bohnhorst B (2002) Gastroesophageal reflux and apnea of prematurity: No temporal relationship. Pediatrics 109:8–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Putnam PE, Ricker DH, Orenstein SR (1992) Gastroesophageal reflux. In: Beckerman R, Brouilette R, Hunt C (eds) Respiratory control disorders in infants and children. Williams&Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 322–341Google Scholar
  104. Rosario JF del, Orenstein SR (1996) Evaluation and management of gastroesophageal reflux and pulmonary desease. Curr Opin Pediatr 8:209–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Shaker R, Dodds WJ, Ren J et al. (1992) Esophageal closure reflex: a mechanism of airway protection. Gastroenterology 102:857–861PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Vandenplas Y, Belli D, Benhamou P et al. (1997) A critical appraisal of current management pracitces for infant regurgitation — recommendations of a working party. Eur J Pediatr 156:343–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Vandenplas Y (1997) Asthma and gastroesophageal reflux. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 24:89–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Wenzl TG, Schenke S, Peschgens T et al. (2001) Association of apnea and nonacid gastroesophageal reflux in infants: investigations with the intraluminal impedance technique. Pediatr Pulmonol 31 : 144–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Ieven M, Goossens H (1997) Relevance of nucleic acid amplification techniques for diagnosis of respiratory tract infections in the clinical laboratory. Clin Microbiol Rev 10/2:242–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Isaacs D (1989) Problems in determining the etiology of community-aquired childhood pneumonia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 8:143–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Jacobs RF (1991) Nosocomial pneumonia in children. Infection 19:64–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Klein JO (1998) Bacterial pneumonias. In: Feigin RD, Cherry JD (eds) Textbook of pediatric infectious disease, 4th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 273–284Google Scholar
  113. Korppi M (1995) Physical signs in childhood pneumonia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 14:405–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Mcintosh K (2002) Community-acquired pneumonia in children. N Engl J Med 346(6):429–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Nohynek H, Eskola J, Laine E, et al. (1991) The causes of hospital-treated acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. Am J Dis Child 145:618–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Nohynek H, Valkeila E, Leinonen M, Eskola J (1995) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell count and serum C-reactive protein in assessing etiologic diagnosis of acute lower respiratory infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 14:484–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Oermann CM, Moore RH (1996) Foolers: things that look like pneumonia in children. Semin Respir Infect 11/3:204–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Snape PS (1993) Thoracic actinomycosis: an unusual childhood infection. South Med J 86:222–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. British Thoracic Society Guidelines for the Management of Community Acquired Pneumonia in Childhood (2002) Thorax 57 (Suppl 1):1–24Google Scholar
  120. Englund JA (2002) Antiviral therapy of influenza. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis 13(2):120–128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Götz M, Ponhold W (1997) Pneumonia in children. Eur Respir Monogr 2:226–262Google Scholar
  122. Gubareva LV, Kaiser L, Hayden FG (2000) Influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitors. Lancet 355(9206):827–835PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Johnston ID (1999) Effect of pneumonia in childhood on adult lung function. J Pediatr 135/2 PT2):33–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Korppi M (2002) Mixed microbial aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children. APMIS 110(7–8):512–522Google Scholar
  125. Mcintosh K (2002) Community-acquired pneumonia in children. N Engl J Med 346(6):429–437PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Nelson CT (2002) Mycoplasma and Chlamydia pneumonia in pediatrics. Semin Respir Infect 17(1):10–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Pädiatrische Infektiologie (2001) Prophylaxe von bedrohlichen RSV-Erkrankungen durch Palivizumab. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 149:324–326Google Scholar
  128. Österreichische Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde (2001) Prävention der Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Infektion bei Frühgeborenen mit Palivizumab (Synagis®). Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 149:176–179Google Scholar
  129. Principi N, Esposito S (2001) Emerging role of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in paediatric respiratory-tract infections. Lancet Infect Dis 1(5):334–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Smyth A (2002) Pneumonia due to viral and atypical organisms and their sequelae. Br Med Bull 61:247–262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Virkki R, Juven T, Rikalainen H et al. (2002) Differentiation of bacterial and viral pneumonia in children. Thorax 57(5):438–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Zar HJ, Hanslo D, Tannenbaum E et al. (2001) Aetiology and outcome of pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children hospitalized in South Africa. Acta Paediatr 90(2):119–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Edwards JE (1997) International conference for the development of a consensus on the management and prevention of severe candidal infections. Clin Infect Dis 25:43–59PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Heizmann WR (1993) Systemische Pilzinfektionen. Diagnostik, Prophylaxe und Therapie. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  135. Jacobs RF, Bradsher RW (1990) The mycoses. In: Chernick V, Kendig EL (eds) Disorders of the respiratory tract in children. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 787–798Google Scholar
  136. Logan PM, Müller NL (1996) CT manifestations of pulmonary aspergillosis. Crit Rev Diagn Imaging 37(1):1 – 37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Lörcher U, Schmidt H (1996) HR-CT der Lunge. Thieme, Stuttgart New York, S 48–54,128Google Scholar
  138. Mandell GL, Douglas RG, Bennett JE (1990) Principles and practice of infectious diseases. Churchill Livingstone, New York London, pp 1942–2031Google Scholar
  139. Martino R, Subira M (2002) Invasive fungal infections in hematology: new trends. Ann Hematol 81:233–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Medoff G, Kobayashi G, Starke JR (1992) Pulmonary infections due to actinomyces and nocardia, and pulmonary mycoses. In: Feigin RD, Cherry JD (eds) Pediatric infectious diseases. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 271–281Google Scholar
  141. Nowrousion MR (1997) Prophylaxe und Therapie von Infektionen bei Patienten mit malignen Erkrankungen. In: Zeller, zur Hausen (Hrsg) Onkologie; Grundlagen Diagnostik Therapie Entwicklungen. Ecomed, Landsberg/Lech, S 1 – 35Google Scholar
  142. Ozsahin H, von Planta M, Müller I et al. (1998) Successful treatment of invasive aspergillosis in chronic granulomatous disease by bone marrow transplantation, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized granulocystes, and liposomal amphotericin-B. Blood 92 (8):2719–2724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Pacheco-Rios A, Avila-Figueroa C, Nobigrot-Kleinman D, Santos Jl (1997) Mortality associated with systemic candidiasis in children. Arch Med Res 28:229–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Raeder E, Freihorst J, Ringe H et al. (1997) Diagnostische Falle exogen allergische Alveolitis. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 145:810–814Google Scholar
  145. Scholz H, Belohradsky BH, Kreth W et al. (1997) Handbuch 1997. Infektionen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. Futuramed, München, S 185–188,200–210Google Scholar
  146. Walsh TJ, Jesse L, Pappas P et al. (2001) Safety, tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of high-dose liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) in patients infected with aspergillus species and other filamentous fungi: Maximum tolerated dose study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:3487–3496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Webb WR, Müller NL, Naidich DP (1996) High-resolution CT of the lung. Lippincott-Raven,New York,pp186–187Google Scholar
  148. Burchard GD (1998) Erkrankungen bei Immigranten. Fischer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  149. Cook GC (ed) (1997) Manson’s tropical diseases. Saunders, LondonGoogle Scholar
  150. Garcia LS, Bruckner DA (1997) Diagnostic medical parasitology. ASM, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  151. Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF (1999) Tropical infections diseases. Churchill Livingstone PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  152. Lang W, Löscher T (2000) Tropenmedizin in Klinik und Praxis. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  153. Pande JN (1989) Respiratory medicine in the tropics. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  154. Brook I (1993) Lung abscesses and pleural empyema in children. Adv Pediatr Infect Dis 8:159–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Cameron R (2000) Intra-pleural fibrinolytic therapy vs. conservative management in the treatment of parapneumonic effusions and empyema (Cochrane review). In: Cochrane collaboration. Cochrane library. Issue 3. Update software, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  156. Hamm H, Light RW (1997) Series »The Pleura«. Parapneumonic effusion and empyema. Eur Respir J 10:1150–1156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Hoff SJ, Neblett W, Edwards K et al. (1991) Parapneumonic empyema in children: decortication hastens recovery in patients with severe pleural infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J 10:194–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Kennedy AS, Agness M, Baily L, White J (1991) Decortication for chil-hood empyema. The primary provider’s pecadillo. Arch Surg 126: 1287–1291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Lewis KT, Bukstein DA (1992) Parapneumonic empyema in children: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician 46/5:1443–1455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Light RW (1997) Series »The Pleura«. Diagnostic principles in pleural disease. Eur Respir J 10:476–481PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Miserocchi G (1997) Series »The Pleura«. Physiology and pathophysiology in pleural fluid turnover. Eur Respir J 10:219–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Thomson AH, Hull J, Kumar MR et al. (2002) Randomised trial of intrapleural urokinase in the treatment of childhood empyema. Thorax 57:343–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2000) Target tuberculin testin, and treatment of latent tuberculosis infaction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161 (4):S221 S247Google Scholar
  164. Comstock GW (1999) How much isoniazid is needed for prevention of tuberculosis among immunocompetent adults? Int JTuberc Lung Dis 3:847–850Google Scholar
  165. Correa AG (1997) Unique aspects of tuberculosis in the pediatric population. Clin Chest Med 18:89–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Deutsches Zentralkomitee zur Bekämpfung der Tuberkulose (2001) Richtlinien zur medikamentösen Behandlung derTuberkulose im Erwachsenen- und Kindesalter. Pneumologie 55:494–511Google Scholar
  167. Fine PEM (1995) Variation in protection by BCG: Implications of and for heterologous immunity. Lancet 346:1339–1345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Fu ML, Fu-Liu CS (2002) Thalidomide and tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 6:569–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Heymann SJ, Brewer TF, Wilson ME et al. (2000) Pediatric tuberculosis: What needs to be done to decrease morbidity and mortality. Pediatrics 106:e1Google Scholar
  170. Iseman MD (1993) Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. N Engl J Med 329:784–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Jacobs RF (1995) Pediatric tuberculosis. In: Rossman MD, MacGregor RR (eds) Tuberculosis. McGraw-Hill, New York St. Louis San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  172. Loddenkemper R, Brendel A, Sagebiel D, Forßbohm M (2002) Die Tuberkulosesituation in Deutschland 2000. Pneumologie 56: 550–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Magdorf K (2001) Prävention derTuberkulose im Kindesalter — Update 2001. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 149:713–716Google Scholar
  174. Orme IM (1997) Progress in the development of new vaccines against tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 1:95–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Sánchez-Albisua I, Vidal ML, Joya-Verde G et al. (1997) Tolerance of pyra-zinamide in short course chemotherapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 16:760–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Sell S (2001) Granulomatous reaction: Infectious deseases — tuberculosis. In: Immunology, immunopathology and immunity, 6th edn. ASM Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  177. Wallgren A (1948) The time-table of tuberculosis. Tuber Lung Dis 29:245–251Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Nadal
  • J. Seidenberg
  • J. Forster
  • C. Rieger
  • K. Paul
  • F. Riedel
  • R. Szczepanski
  • W. Thal
  • H. von der Hardt
  • H. Skopnik
  • T. G. Wenzl
  • J. Freihorst
  • M. Götz
  • J. Roesler
  • U. Bienzle
  • T. Frischer
  • K. Magdorf

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations