Paartherapie aus verhaltenstherapeutischer Sicht

  • G. Bodenmann

Zusammenfassung

Die ersten verhaltenstherapeutischen Interventionen bei Paaren gehen auf die späten 60er Jahre zurück (Lazarus 1968; Stuart 1969; Weiss et al. 1973) und zielten in der Anfangszeit insbesondere auf eine Verbesserung der dyadischen Kommunikation ab. Trotz Neuerungen in den letzten Jahren ist der Schwerpunkt der verhaltenstherapeutischen Paartherapie bei der Förderung von Kompetenzen geblieben. Dieser Fokus begründet sich in empirischen Erkenntnissen, wonach die Partnerschaftsqualität und -stabilität im Wesentlichen von drei Kompetenzen abhängt: 1) von einer angemessenen Kommunikation und emotionalen Selbstöffnung, 2) von einer effektiven Problemlösung und 3) von einer wirksamen individuellen und dyadischen (d.h. partnerschaftlichen) Stressbewältigung (Bodenmann 2000 a; Hahlweg 1986; Weiss u. Heyman 1997). Befunde internationaler Studien und verschiedener Forschungslabors (Australien, Deutschland, Niederlande, Schweiz, USA) belegen mit überzeugender Homogenität und Konsistenz, dass weder Persönlichkeitsmerkmale (z. B. Attraktivität, Intelligenz, Status) noch die Art oder das Ausmaß an Problemen prädiktive Bedeutung für den Verlauf der Partnerschaft haben, sondern die Fertigkeiten beider Partner bzw. des Paares. Während zufriedene wie unzufriedene Paare Konflikte haben und auch über Jahre hinweg dieselben Streitthemen aktuell sein können, unterscheiden sich die beiden Gruppen v a. hinsichtlich des Umgangs mit Konflikten, der Lösung von Problemen und dem Umgang mit Alltagsstress.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Baucom DH (1982) A comparison of behavioral contracting and problem-solving/communications training in behavioral marital therapy. Behavior Therapy 13: 162–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baucom DH (1998) Maßnahmen zur Prävention von Beziehungsstörungen und Scheidung. In: Hahlweg K, Baucom DH, Bastine R, Markman HJ (Hrsg) Prävention von Trennung und Scheidung — Internationale Ansätze zur Prädiktion und Prävention von Beziehungsstörungen. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, S 13–26Google Scholar
  3. Baucom DH, Epstein N (1990) Cognitive behavioral marital therapy. Brunner/Mazel, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Baucom DH, Lester GW (1986) The usefulness of cognitive restructuring as an adjunct to behavioral marital therapy. Behavior Therapy 17: 385–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baucom DH, Sayers SL, Sher TG (1990) Supplementing behavioral marital therapy with cognitive restructuring and emotional expressiveness training: An outcome investigation. Behavior Therapy 21: 129–138Google Scholar
  6. Baucom DH, Shoham V, Mueser KT, Daiuto AD, Stickle TR (1998) Empirically supported couple and family interventions for marital distress and adult mental health problems. J Consulting Clinical Psychology 66: 53–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck AT, Rush AJ, Shaw BF, Emery G (1979) Cognitive therapy of depression. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Bodenmann G (1995) Bewältigung von Stress in Partnerschaften. Der Einfluss von Belastungen auf die Qualität und Stabilität von Paarbeziehungen. Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
  9. Bodenmann G (1999) Das Freiburger Stresspräventionstraining (FSPT): Theoretischer Hintergrund und empirische Wirksamkeit. In: Kaiser P (Hrsg) Partnerschaft und Paartherapie. Hogrefe, Göttingen, S 293–304Google Scholar
  10. Bodenmann G ( 2000 a) Stress und Coping bei Paaren. Hogrefe, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  11. Bodenmann G (2000 b) Kompetenzen für die Partnerschaft. DasGoogle Scholar
  12. Freiburger Stresspräventionstraining. Juventa, Weinheim Bodenmann G (2001) Risikofaktoren für Scheidung: Ein Überblick. Psychologische Rundschau 52: 85–95Google Scholar
  13. Bodenmann G, Cina A, Widmer K (1999) Ergebnisse zur Wirksamkeit des Freiburger Stresspräventionstrainings für Paare (FSPT) bezüglich der Partnerschaftsqualität: Eine 6-Monate-Follow-up-Studie. Verhaltenstherapie Verhaltensmedizin 20: 249–273Google Scholar
  14. Bodenmann G, Widmer K, Cina A (1999) Das Freiburger Stresspräventionstraining (FSPT): Selbstwahrgenommene Veränderungen innerhalb von 6 Monaten. Verhaltenstherapie 9: 87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bornstein PH, Anton B, Harowski KJ, Wetzien RT, McIntyre TJ, Hocker J (1981) Behavioral-communication treatment of marital discord: Positive behaviors. Behavioral Counseling Quarterly 1: 189–201Google Scholar
  16. Bradbury TN, Fincham FD (1990) Attributions in marriage: Review and critique. Psychological Bulletin 107: 3–33Google Scholar
  17. Buehlman K, Gottman JM, Katz L (1992) How a couple views their past predicts their future: Predicting divorce from an oral history interview. J Family Psychology 5: 295–318Google Scholar
  18. Christensen A, Shenk JL (1991) Communication, conflict, and psychological distance in nondistressed, clinic, and divorcing couples. J Consulting Clinical Psychology 59: 458–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Coyne JC (1990) Concepts for understanding marriage and developing techniques of marital therapy: Cognition über alles? J Family Psychology 4: 185–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Drigotas SM, Rusbult CE, Verette J (1999) Level of commitment, mutuality of commitment, and couple well-being. Personal Relationships 6: 389–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dunn RL, Schwebel AI (1995) Meta-analytic review of marital therapy outcome research. J Family Psychology 9: 58–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eidelson RJ, Epstein N (1982) Cognition and relationship maladjustment: Development of a measure of dysfunctional relationship beliefs. J Consulting Clinical Psychology 50: 715–720Google Scholar
  23. Emmelkamp PM, van Linden G, van Den Heuvell C, Ruphan M, Anderman R, Scholing A, Stroink F (1988) Cognitive and behavioral interventions: A comparative evaluation with clinically distressed couples. J Family Psychology 1: 365–377Google Scholar
  24. Epstein NB, Baucom DH, Daiuto A (1997) Cognitive-behavioral therapy. In: HalfordWK, Markman HJ (eds) Clinical handbook of marriage and couples intervention. John Wiley, Chichester, pp 415–450Google Scholar
  25. Fincham FD, Bradbury TN (1987) The impact of attributions in marriage: A longitudinal analysis. J Personality Social Psychology 53: 481–489Google Scholar
  26. Fletcher GJO, Fincham FD, Cramer L, Heron N (1987) The role of attributions and happiness in close relationships. J Personality Social Psychology 53: 510–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gottman JM (1994) What predicts divorce? Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJGoogle Scholar
  28. Gottman JM (1999) The seven principles for making marriage work. Crown, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Grawe K, Donati R, Bernauer F (1994) Psychotherapie im Wandel. Von der Konfession zur Profession. Hogrefe, GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  30. Gruen RJ, Folkman S, Lazarus RS (1988) Centrality and individual differences in the meaning of daily hassles. Journal of Personality 56: 743–762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guerney BG (1977) Relationship enhancement. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  32. Gurman AS, Kniskern DP (eds) (1991) Handbook of family therapy. Brunner/Mazel, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Gurman AS, Kniskern DP, Pinsof WM (1986) Research on marital and family therapies. In: Garfield SL, Bergin AE (eds) Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change. Wiley, New York, pp 565–624Google Scholar
  34. Hahlweg K (1986) Partnerschaftliche Interaktion. Röttger, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  35. Hahlweg K, Markman HJ (1988) Effectiveness of behavioral marital therapy: Empirical status of behavioral techniques in preventing and alleviating marital distress. J Consulting Clinical Psychology 56: 440–447Google Scholar
  36. Hahlweg K, Markman HJ, Thurmaier F, Engl J, Eckert V (1998) Prevention of marital distress: Results of a German prospective longitudinal study. J Family Psychology 12: 543556Google Scholar
  37. Hahlweg K, Revenstorf D, Schindler L (1984) Effects of behavioral marital therapy on couple’s communication and problem-solving skills. J Consulting Clinical Psychology 52: 553–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hahlweg K, Schröder B (1993) Kommunikationstraining. In: Linden M, Hautzinger M (Hrsg) Verhaltenstherapie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokio, S 193–200Google Scholar
  39. Hahlweg K, Thurmaier F, Engl J, Eckert V, Markman HJ (1993) Prävention von Beziehungsstörungen. System Familie 6: 89–100Google Scholar
  40. Halford WK (1998) The ongoing evolution of behavioral couples therapy: Retrospect and prospect. Clinical Psychology Review 18: 613–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Halford WK, Sanders MR, Behrens BC (1993) A comparison of the generalization of behavioral marital therapy and enhanced behavioral marital therapy. J Consulting Clinical Psychology 61: 51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Holtzworth-Munroe A, Jacobson N (1991) Behavioral marital therapy. In: Gurman AS, Kniskern DP (eds) Handbook of family therapy. Brunner/Mazel, New York, pp 96–133Google Scholar
  43. Jacobson NS (1978) Specific and nonspecific factors in the effectiveness of a behavioral approach to the treatment of marital discord. J Consulting Clinical Psychology 46: 442452Google Scholar
  44. Jacobson NS (1979) Increasing positive behavior in severely distressed marital relationships: The effects of problem-solving training. Behavior Therapy 10: 311–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jacobson NS (1992) Behavioral couple therapy: A new beginning. Behavior Therapy 23: 493–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jacobson NS, Addis ME (1993) Research on couples and couple therapy: What do we know? Where are we going? J Consulting Clinical Psychology 61: 85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jacobson NS, Christensen A (1996) Integrative behavioral couple therapy. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Jacobson NS, Gurman AS (1986) Clinical Handbook of marital therapy. Guilford, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Jacobson NS, Follette WC, Holtzworth-Munroe A, Katt JL, Schmaling KB (1985) A component analysis of behavioral marital therapy: One-year follow-up. Behavior Research Therapy 23: 373–393Google Scholar
  50. Jacobson NS, Follette WC, Revenstorf D, Baucon DH, Hahlweg K, Margolin G (1984) Variability in outcome and clinical significance of behavioral marital therapy: A reanalysis of outcome data. J Consulting Clinical Psychology 52: 497–504Google Scholar
  51. Jacobson NS, Margolin G (1979) Marital therapy: Strategies based on social learing and behavior exchange principles. Brunner/Mazel, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. Lazarus AA (1968) Behavior therapy and group marriage counseling. J Am Society Psychosomatic Dentestry Medicine 15: 49–56Google Scholar
  53. Lazarus RS, Launier R (1978) Stress-related transactions between person and environment. In: Pervin LA, Lewis M (eds) Perspective in interactional psychology. Plenum, New York, pp 287–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lederer WJ, Jackson DD (1972) Ehe als Lernprozess. Wie Partnerschaft gelingt. Pfeiffer, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  55. Margolin G, Weiss RL (1978) Comparative evaluation of therapeutic components associated with behavioral marital treatments. J Consulting Clinical Psychology 46: 1476–1486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Markman HJ, Hahlweg K (1993) The prediction and prevention of marital distress: An international perspective Clinical Psychology Review 13: 29–43Google Scholar
  57. Markman HJ, Renick MJ, Floyd FJ, Stanley SM, Clements M (1993) Preventing marital distress through communication and conflict management trainings: A 4- and 5- year follow-up. J Consulting Clinical Psychology 61: 70–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Miller S, Nunnally E, Wackman D (1975) Minnesota couples communication program (MCCP); Premarital and marital groups. In: Olson DH (ed) Treating relationships. Graphic, Lake Mills, pp 21–40Google Scholar
  59. Noller P, Venardos C (1986) Communication awareness in married couples. J Social Personal Relationships 3: 31–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Patterson GR, Hops H, Weiss RL (1975) Interpersonal skills training for couples in early stage of conflict. J Marriage Family 37: 295–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Revenstorf D (1993) Paartherapie. In: Revenstorf D (Hrsg) Psychotherapeutische Verfahren: Gruppen- Paar-and Familientherapie Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, S 117–170Google Scholar
  62. Phelps MA, Jacobson NS (1998) Integrative couple therapy: Balancing change and acceptance. Crisis Intervention 4: 49–66Google Scholar
  63. Pinsof WM, Wynne LC (1995) The efficacy of marital and family therapy: An empirical overview conclusions and recommendations. J Marital Family Therapy 21: 585–613Google Scholar
  64. Prince SE, Jacobson NS (1995) A review and evaluation of marital and family therapy for affective disorders. J Marital Family Therapy 21: 377–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rogers CR (1951) Client-centered therapy. Houghton Mifflin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  66. Scherer KR (1988) Criteria for emotion-antecedant appraisal: A review. In: Hamilton V, Bower GH, Frijda NH (eds) Cognitive perspectives on emotion and motivation Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 89–126Google Scholar
  67. Schindler L, Hahlweg K, Revenstorf D (1998) Partnerschaftsprobleme: Diagnose and Therapie, 2. Aufl. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York TokioGoogle Scholar
  68. Shadish WR, Montgomery LM, Wilson P, Bright I, Okwumabua T (1993) The effects of family and marital psychotherapies: A meta-analysis. J Consulting Clinical Psychology 59: 883–893Google Scholar
  69. Stuart RB (1969) Operant-interpersonal treatment for marital discord. J Consulting Clinical Psychology 33: 675–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Van Widenfelt B, Hosman C, Schaap C, Van der Staak C (1996) The prevention of relationship distress for couples at risk. A controlled evaluation with nine-month and two-year follow-ups. Family Relations 45: 156–165Google Scholar
  71. Vanzetti NA, Notarius CI, NeeSmith D (1992) Specific and generalized expectancies in marital interaction. J Family Psychology 6: 171–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Weiss RL, Hops H, Patterson GR (1973) A framework for conceptualizing marital conflict a technology for altering it some data for evaluating it. In: Hammerlynck LA, Handy LC, Mash EJ (eds) Behavior change: Methodology concepts and practice. Research, Champaign, ILGoogle Scholar
  73. Weiss RL, Birchler GR, Vincent JP (1974) Contractual models of negotiation training in marital dyads. J Marriage Family 36: 321–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Weiss RL, Heyman RE (1997) A clinical overview of couples interactions. In: Halford WK, Markman HJ (eds) Clinical handbook of marriage and couples interventions. Wiley, New York, pp 13–41Google Scholar
  75. Wesley S, Waring EM (1996) A critical review of marital therapy outcome research. Canadian J Psychiatry 41: 421–428Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Bodenmann

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations