Neurotoxicity of metals

  • G. Stoltenburg-Didinger


The upsurge of interest in recent years in science, industry, and government in the effects of toxic chemicals on the nervous system has created a new discipline of neurotoxicology.


Lead Exposure Blood Lead Level MeHg Exposure Organic Mercury Compound MeHg Poisoning 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alfano DP, Petit TL (1982) Neonatal lead exposure alters the dendritic development of hippocampal dentate granule cells. Exp Neurol 75: 275–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altmann L, Weinsberg F, Sveinsson K, Lilienthal H, Winneke G (1993) Impairment of long-term potentiation and learning following chronic lead exposure. Toxicol Lett 66: 105–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ascarin I, Carrasco J, Gonzalez B, Hidalgo J, Castellano B (1999) Expression of growth inhibitory factor (metallothionein-III) mRNA and protein following excitotoxic immature brain injury. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 58: 389–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aschner M, Conklin DR, Yao CP, Allen JW, Tan KH (1998) Induction of astrocyte metallothioneins (MTs) by zinc confers resistance against the acute cytotoxic effects of methylmercury on cell swelling, Na+ uptake, and K+ release. Brain Res 813: 254–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bellinger D, Levitan A, Watermaux C, Needleman H, Rabinowitz M (1987) Longitudinal analyses of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development. N Eng J Med 316: 1037–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bellinger D, Stiles KM (1993) Epidemiologic approaches to assessing the developmental toxicity of lead. Neurotoxicology 14: 151–160Google Scholar
  7. Behse F, Carlsen F (1978) Histology and ultrastructure of alterations in neuropathy. Muscle and Nerve 1: 368–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bush AI (1989) Metals and neuroscience. Curr Opinion Chem Biol 2004: 184–191Google Scholar
  9. Brewer GJ, Cotman GW NMDA receptor regulation in neuronal morphology in cultured hippocampal neurons. Neurosci Lett 99: 268–273Google Scholar
  10. Byers RK (1959) Lead poisoning. Review of the literature and report on 45 cases. Pediatrics 23: 585Google Scholar
  11. Carrasco J, Giralt M, Molinero A, Penkowa M, Moos T, Hidalgo J (1999) Metallothionein (MT)-III: generation of polyclonal antibodies, comparison with MT-I + II in the freeze lesioned rat brain and in a bioassay with astrocytes, and analysis of Alzheimer’s disease brains. J Neurotrauma 16: 1115–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Centers for Disease Control. Preventing lead poisoning in young children. Atlanta 1991Google Scholar
  13. Chang LW (1977) Neurotoxic effects of mercury–a review. Environ Res 14: 329–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Charleston JS, Body RL, Mottet NK, Vahter ME, Burbacher TM (1995) Autometallographic determination of inorganic mercury distribution in the cortex of the calcarine sulcus of the monkey Macaca fascicularis following long-term subclinical exposure to methylmercury and mercuric chloride. Toxicol appl Pharmacol 132: 325–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Charleston JS, Body RL, Bolender RP, Mottet NK, Vahter ME, Burbacher TM (1996) Changes in the number of astrocytes and microglia in the thalamus of the monkey Macaca fascicularis following long-term subclinical methylmercury exposure. Neuro-toxicology 17: 127–138Google Scholar
  16. Collins MF, Hrdina PD, Whittle E, Singhal RL (1982) Lead in blood and brain regions of rats chronically exposed to low doses of the metal. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 65: 341–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Edwards GN (1865) Two cases of poisoning by mercuric methide. St. Bartholomew’s Hospital Reports 18652: 141–150Google Scholar
  18. Fjerdinstad EJ, Danscher G, Fjerdingstad E (1974) Hippocampus: selective concentration of lead in the normal rat brain. Brain Res 80: 350–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goldstein GW (1992) Neurological concepts of lead poisoning in children. Pediatr Ann 21: 384–388Google Scholar
  20. Grandjean P, Weihe P, White RF, Debes F, Araki S, Yokoyama K, Murata K, Sorensen N, Dahl R, Jorgensen RI (1997) Cognitive deficit in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. Neurotoxicol Teratol 19: 417–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hargreaves RJ, Foster JR, Pelling D, Moorhouse SR, Gangolli SD, Rowland JR (1985) Changes in the distribution of of histochemically localized mercury in the CNS and in tissue-levels of organic and inorganic mercury during the development of intoxication in methylmercury treated rats. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 11: 383–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holtzman D, DeVries C, Nguyen H, Olson J, Bensch K (1984) Maturation and resistance to lead encephalopathy: cellular and subcellular mechanisms. Neurotoxicology 5: 97–124Google Scholar
  23. Hunter D, Russell DS (1954) Focal cerebellar atrophy in human subject due to organic mercury compounds. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 17: 235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Johnston MV, Goldstein GW (1998) Selective vulnerability of the developing brain to lead. Curr Opinion Neurol 11: 689–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kern M, Wisniewski M, Cabell L, Audesirk G (2000) Inorganic lead and calcium interact positively in activation of calmodulin. Neurotoxicology 21: 353–364Google Scholar
  26. Kramer KK, Liu J, Choudhuri S, Klaassen CD (1996) Induction of metollo-thionein mRNA and protein in murine astrocyte cultures. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 136: 94–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Marsh DO, Myers GJ, Clarkson TW, Amin-Zaki L, Tigriti S, Majeed M (1980) Fetal methylmercury poisoning: Clinical and pathologic features. Ann Neurol 7: 348–353Google Scholar
  28. Needleman HL (1990) The future challenge of lead toxicity. Environ Health Perspect 89: 85–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nihei MK, Desmond NL, McGlothan JL, Kuhlmann AC, Guilarte TR (2000) NMDA receptor subunit changes are associated with Pb2+ -induced deficits of LTP and spatial learning. Neuroscience 99: 233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nihei MK, Guilarte TR (2001) Molecular changes in glutamatergic synapses induced by Pb2+: Association with deficits of LTP and spatial learning. Neurotoxicology 22: 635–643Google Scholar
  31. Noack S, Lilienthal H, Winneke G, Stoltenburg-Didinger G (1996) Immunohistochemical localization of neuronal and glial calcium-binding proteins in hippocampus of chronically low level lead exposed Rhesus monkeys. Neurotoxicology 17: 679–684Google Scholar
  32. Norenberg MD, Martinez-Hernandez A (1979) Fine structural localization of glutamine synthetase in astrocytes of rat brain. Brain Res 21: 199–202Google Scholar
  33. Peters B, Stoltenburg-Didinger G, Hummel M, Herbst H, Altmann L, Wiegand H (1994) Effects of chronic low level lead exposure on the expression of GFAP and vimentin mRNA in the rat brain hippocampus analysed by in situ hibridization. Neurotoxicology 15: 685–693Google Scholar
  34. Phillippe M, Gothard M (1903) Contribution A. l’étude de l’origine centrale de la paralyse saturnine. Rev Neurol 11: 117Google Scholar
  35. Schionning JD (2000) Experimental neurotoxicity of mercury autometallographic and stereologic studies on rat spinal root ganglion and spinal cord. APMIS 108: 5–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schionning JD, Moller-Madsen B. (1992) allographic detection of mercury in rat spinal cord after treatment with organic mercury. Virchows Arch B: Cell Pathol 61: 307–313Google Scholar
  37. Selvin-Testa A, Lopez-Costa JJ, Nessi-de-Avinon AC, Pessi-Saavedra J (1991) Astroglial reactions in rat hippocampus during chronic lead exposure. Glia 4: 384–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Slomianka L, Rungby J, West MJ, Danscher G, Andersen AH (1989) Dose-dependent bimodal effect of low level lead exposure on the developing hippocampal region of the rat: a volumetric study. Neurotoxicology 10: 177–190Google Scholar
  39. Stoltenburg-Didinger G, Markwort S (1990) Prenatal methylmercury exposure results in dendritic spine dysgenesis. Neurotoxicol Teratol 12: 573–576CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Stoltenburg-Didinger G, Pünder I, Peters B, Marcinkowski M, Herbst H, Winneke G, Wiegand H (1996) Glial fibrillary acidic protein and RNA expression in adult rat hippo-campus following low-level lead exposure during development. Histochem Cell Biol 105: 431–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Takeuchi T, Matusmoto H, Sasaki M, Kambara T, Shiraishi Y, Hirata Y, Nobuhiro M, Ito H. (1968) Pathology of Minamata disease. Kumamoto Medical Journal 34: 521Google Scholar
  42. Thomas JA, Dallenbeck FD, Thomas M (1973). The distribution of radioactive lead (210Pb) in the cerebellum of developing rats. J Pathol 109:45–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Sierra EM, Wu JN, Rowles TK. (1989) Lead toxicity in neuroglia. Neurotoxicology 10: 383–410Google Scholar
  44. Tiffany-Castiglioni E, Qian Y. (2001) Astroglia as metal depots: Molecular mechanism for metal accumulation, storage and release. Neurotoxicology 22: 577–592Google Scholar
  45. Ujihara H, Albuquerque EX. (1992) Developmental change in the inhibition by lead of NMDA-activated currents of cultured hippocampal neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 263: 868–875Google Scholar
  46. Vaguera-Orte J, Cervós-Navarro J, Martin-Giron F, Beccera-Ratia J (1981) Fine structure of the perivascular-limiting membrane. In: Cervós-Navarro J, Fritschka E (eds) Cerebral Microcirculation and Metabolism. Raven Press, New York, pp 129–138Google Scholar
  47. Verity MA (1990) Comparative observations on inorganic and organic lead neurotoxicity. Environ Health Perspect 89: 43–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. WHO Environmental Health Criteria 101 (1990): Methylmercury. Geneva: World Health OrganizationGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Stoltenburg-Didinger

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations