During the many years of work on this subject, 373 series of human embryonic hands and feet were collected. This material contains 270 histological series of hands of human embryos and foetuses from 10 to 100 mm in crown-rump length. Most of them are transversally sectioned; for control the remaining series were sectioned either sagittally or parallel to the palm. The further material contains 103 series of feet of human embryos and foetuses from 15 to 90 mm C-R length, sectioned again transversally, sagittally and parallel to the sole. A series of embryonic hands of various mammals was also employed for comparison. From this entire material partial collections of 50-80 series were picked out for studies of single problems. The selection for those single studies from the entire material was always performed individually so that basic comparable stages of development have been repeated in all single studies and, moreover, so that the maximal number of series employed has belonged to the time of maximal morphogenetic changes of studied pattern (according to the range of their C-R lengths). It was thus possible to study the detailed sequence of development. The material extends to foetuses of such a size that no further changes in external muscle forms and in skeletal pattern can be observed, where the basic ligamentous and fascial structures are also formed, hence where the foetal hand and foot are closely similar to those of the adult.


Human Embryo Phosphomolybdic Acid Skeletal Pattern Molybdic Acid Histological Series 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Radomír Čihák
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyCharles University Medical FacultyPragueCzech Republic

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