Blutgasanalyse und Sauerstofftherapie

  • M. Obladen


Das Blutgasanalysegerät ist eines der Herzstücke der Intensivstation. Moderne Geräte führen unabhängig voneinander pH-Messung (Glaselektrode), PO2-Messung (Clark-Elektro de) und PCO2-Messung (Severinghaus-Elektrode) durch, berechnen Standardbikarbonat, Basendefizit und O2-Sättigung und zeigen alle Werte digital an bzw. drucken sie aus.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ankola PA, Atakent YS (1993) Effect of adding heparin in very low concentration to the infusate to prolong the patency of umbilical artery catheters. Am J Perinatol 10:229–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Askie LM, Henderson Smart DJ (2000) Gradual vs. abrupt discontinuation of oxygen in preterm or low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD001075Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Askie LM, Henderson Smart DJ (2000) Early vs. late discontinuation of oxygen in preterm or low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD001076Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Askie LM, Henderson Smart DJ (2000) Restricted vs. liberal oxygen exposure for preventing morbidity and mortality in preterm or low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD001077Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barrington KJ (2000) Umbilical artery catheters in the newborn: effects of position of the catheter tip. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000505Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barrington KJ (2000) Umbilical artery catheters in the newborn: effects of heparin. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000507Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Binder N, Atherton H, Thorkelsson T, Hoath SB (1994) Measurement of transcutaneous carbon dioxide in low birthweight infants during the first two weeks of life. Am J Perinatol 11:237–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brooks SE, Johnson M, Wallace DK, Paysse EA, Coats DK, Marcus DM (1999) Treatment outcome in fellow eyes after laser photocoagulation for retinopathy of prematurity. Am J Ophthalmol 127:56–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brooks SE, Marcus DM, Gillis D, Pirie E, Johnson Cs, Bhatia J (1999) The effect of blood transfusion protocol on retinopathy of prematurity: A prospective, randomized study. Pediatrics 104:514–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bucher HU, Keel M, Wolf M, von Siebenthal K, Duc G (1994) Artifactual pulse-oximetry estimation in neonates. Lancet 343:1135–1136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bullard SR, Donahue SP, Feman SS, Sinatra RB, Walsh WF (1999) The decreasing incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity. J Aapos 3:46–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chang GY, Lueder FL, DiMichele DM, Radkowski MA, McWilliams LJ, Jan-sen RD (1997) Heparin and the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants. J Pediatr 131:362–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Choi MY, Park IK, Yu YS (2000) Long term refractive outcome in eyes of preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity: comparison of keratometric value, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and lens thickness. Br J Ophthalmol 84:138–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity cooperative group (1988) Multicenter trial of cryotherapy for retinopathy of prematurity: Preliminary results. Pediatrics 81:697–706Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Darlow BA, Graham PJ (2000) Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in very low birthweight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000501Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dudenhausen JW, Luhr C, Dimer JS (1997) Umbilical artery blood gases in healthy term newborn infants. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 57:251–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dunn PM (1966) Localization of the umbilical catheter by postmortem measurement. Arch Dis Child 41:69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Engle WD, Laptook AR, Perlman JM (1999) Acute changes in arterial car- ¦ bon dioxide tension and acid base status and early neurologic characteri- I sties in term infants following perinatal asphyxia. Resuscitation 42:11–17 ¦PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fanconi S (1989) Pulse oximetry for hypoxaemia: A warning to users and manufacturers. Intensive Care Med 15:540–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fanconi S, Tschupp A, Molinari L (1996) Long term transcutaneous monitoring of oxygen tension and carbon dioxide at 42 degrees C in critically ill neonates: improved performance of the tcP02 monitor with topical metabolic inhibition. Eur J Pediatr 155:1043–1046PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fielder AR, Ng YK, Levene M (1986) Retinopathy of prematurity: Age at onset. Arch Dis Child 61:774–778PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Finer NN, Peters KL, Hayek Z, Merkel CL (1984) Vitamin E and necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatrics 73:387–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Flynn JT, Bancalari E, Snyder ES et al. (1992) A cohort study of transcutaneous oxygen tension and the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity. N Engl J Med 326:1050–1054PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gale R, Redner-Carmi R, Gale J (1977) Accumulation of carbon dioxide in oxigen hoods, infant cots, and incubators. Pediatrics 60:453–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Garner A (Committee chairman) (1984) An international classification of retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatrics 74:127–133Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gilbert, WS, Dobson V, Quinn GE, Reynolds J, Tung B, Flynn JT (1992) The correlation of visual function with posterior retinal structure in severe retinopathy of prematurity. Arch Ophthalmol 110:625–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Glass P, Avery GB, Subramanian KNS, Keys MP, Sostek AM, Friendly DS (1985) Effect of bright light in the hospital nursery on the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity. N Engl J Med 313:401–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hunter DE, Mukai S (1992) Retinopathy of Prematurity. Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment. Int Ophtalmol Clin 32:163–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hussain N, Clive J, Bhandari V (1999) Current incidence of retinopathy of prematurity, 1989–1997. Pediatrics 104:e26Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    International Committee for the Classification of the Late Stages of Retinopathy of Prematurity (1988) An international classification of retinopathy of prematurity. II. The classification of retinal detachment. Pediatrics 82:37–43Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Johnson L, Bown FJ Jr, Abbasi S et al. (1985) Relationship of prolonged pharmacologic serum levels of vitamin E to incidence of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in infants with birth weight 1500 grams or less. Pediatrics 75:619–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Karlowicz MG, Giannone PJ, Pestian J, Morrow AL, Shults J (2000) Does candidemia predict threshold retinopathy of prematurity in extremely low birth weight (<1000 g) neonates? Pediatrics 105:1036–1040PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    LIGHT-ROP (1999) The design of the multicenter study of light reduction in retinopathy of prematurity. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 36: 257–263Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lucey JF, Dangman B (1984) A reexamination of the role of oxygen in retrolental fibroplasia. Pediatrics 73:82–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Malloy MH, Cutter GR (1995) The association of heparin exposure with intraventricular hemorrhage among very low birth weight infants. J Peri- natol 15:185–191Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mariani G, Cifuentes J, Carlo WA (1999) Randomized trial of permissive hypercapnia in preterm infants. Pediatrics 104:1082–1088PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mintz-Hittner HA, Prager TC, Kretzer FL (1992) Visual acuity correlates with severity of retinopathy of prematurity in untreated infants weighing 750 g or less at birth. Arch Ophthalmol 110:1087–1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mizuno K, Aizawa M (1999) Effects of body position on blood gases and lung mechanics of infants with chronic lung disease during tube feeding. Pediatr Int 41:609–614PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Morray JP, Brandford HG, Barnes LT et al. (1984) Doppler-assisted radial artery cannulation in infants and children. Anesth Analg 63:346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ng YK, Fielder AR, Shaw DE, Levene MI (1988) Epidemiology of retinopathy of prematurity. Lancet 11:1235–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Papile LA, Burstein J, Burstein R, Koffler H, Koops B (1978) Relationship of intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusions and cerebral intraventricular hemorrhage. J Pediatr 93:834–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Phelps DL (1982) Vitamin E and retrolental fibroplasia. Pediatrics 70: 420.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Phelps DL (1993) Retinopathy of prematurity. Ped Clin North Am 40:705–714Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Phelps DL, Watts JL (2000) Early light reduction for preventing retinopathy of prematurity in very low birth weight infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD000122Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Poets CF, Wilken M, Seidenberg J, Southall DP, von der Hardt H (1993) The reliability of a pulse oximeter in the detection of hyperoxemia. J Pediatr 122:87–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Reynolds JD, Hardy RJ, Kennedy KA, Spencer R, van Heuven WA, Fielder AR (1998) Lack of efficacy of light reduction in preventing retinopathy of prematurity. Light Reduction in Retinopathy of Prematurity (LIGHT-ROP) Cooperative Group. N Engl J Med 338:1572–1576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rome ES, Stork EK, Carlo WA, Martin RJ (1984) Limitations of transcutaneous PO2 and PC02 monitoring in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics 74:217–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schaffer DB, Johnson L, Quinn GE et al (1988) Vitamin E and retinopathy of prematurity: The ophthalmologist’s perspective. Birth Defects 74: 219–295Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Simmons MA, Adcock EW, Bard H, Battaglia FC (1974) Hypernatremia and intracranial hemorrhage in neonates. N Engl J Med 291:6–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Solimano AJ, Smyth JA, Mann TK, Albersheim SG, Lockitch G (1986) Pulse oximetry advantages in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics 78:844–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    STOP ROP (2000) Supplemental Therapeutic Oxygen for Prethreshold Retinopathy of Prematurity, a randomized, controlled trial. I: primary outcomes Pediatrics 105:295–310Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Thorp JA, Rushing RS (1999) Umbilical cord blood gas analysis. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am 26:695–709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Todres D, Rogers MC, Shannon DC, Moylan FMB, Ryan JF (1975) Percutaneous catheterization of the radial artery in the critically ill neonate. J Pediatrics 87:273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wall PM, Kuhns LR (1977) Percutaneous arterial sampling using transillumination. Pediatrics 59:1032–1035PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Watts P, Adams GG, Thomas RM, Bunce C (2000) Intraventricular haemorrhage and stage 3 retinopathy of prematurity. Br J Ophthalmol 84:596–599PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wispe JR, Roberts RJ (1987) Molecular basis of pulmonary oxygen toxicity, i Clin Perinatol 14:651–666PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Obladen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations