Advertisement

Das untergewichtige Neugeborene

  • M. Obladen

Zusammenfassung

Empfängnis, embryonale und fetale Entwicklung, Geburt und postnatale Entwicklung des Kindes sind ein kontinuierlicher Ablauf, in dem es außer der Geburt keine biologisch definierten Einschnitte gibt. Da die Hauptursachen für Säuglingssterblichkeit und perinatal erworbene Behinderung untergewichtige Neugeborene betreffen und da sich die Leistungsfähigkeit von Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie am besten bei diesen Kindern bewerten läßt, hat die Weltgesundheitsorganisation 1970 verbindliche Definitionen festgelegt [36]. Leider wurden einige Definitionen (z. B. Lebendgeburt, Totgeburt, Fehlgeburt, Definition der Reife) nicht von allen Ländern einheitlich akzeptiert, was den internationalen Vergleich mancher Statistiken erschwert. In Deutschland hat das Personenstandsgesetz 1994 Klarheit geschaffen: Kinder unter 1000 g Geburtsgewicht, bei denen keine Lebenszeichen wahrzunehmen sind, wurden zuvor als Fehlgeburten klassifiziert und nicht registriert. Alle Kinder mit einem Geburtsgewicht von 500 g und mehr müssen seitdem gemeldet und beurkundet werden (GVBL, S. 608).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Agren J, Sjors G, Sedin G (1998) Transepidermal water loss in infants born at 24 and 25 weeks of gestation. Acta Paediatr 87:1185–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    l’Allemand D, Grüters A, Beyer P, Weber B (1987) Iodine in contrast agents and skin disinfectant is the major cause for hypothyroidism in premature infants during intensive care. Horm Res 28:A2–49Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Astbury J, Orgill AA, Bajuk B, Yu VYH (1990) Neurodevelopmental outcome, growth, and health of extremely low-birth weight survivors: how soon can we tell. Dev Med Child Neurol 32:582–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cockburn F, Cooke RWI, Gamsu HR et al. (1993) The CRIB (clinical risk index for babies) score: a tool for assessing initial neonatal risk and comparing performance of neonatal intensive care units. Lancet 342:193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    David RJ, Collins JW Jr (1997) Differing birth weight among infants of U. S. -born blacks, African-born blacks, and U. S. -born whites. N Engl J Med 337:1209–1214PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Finnström O (1977) Studies on maturity in newborn infants. IX Further observations on the use of external characteristics in estimating gestational age. Acta Paediatr Scand 66:601–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goldenberg RL, Rouse DJ (1998) Prevention of premature birth. N Engl J Med 339:313–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goldenberg RL, Hauth JC, Andrews WW (2000) Intrauterine infection and preterm delivery. N Engl J Med 342:1500–1507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hope P (1995) CRIB, son of Apgar, brother to APACHE. Arch Dis Child 72:F81–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kattner E, Metze B, Keen DV, Pearse RG, Dudenhausen JW (1992) Perzen-tilenkurven für Geburtsgewicht, Länge und Kopfumfang unter besonderer Berücksichtigung sehr unreifer Frühgeborener. Perinatal Medizin 4:118–121Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kinmond S, Aitchison TC, Holland BM, Jones JG, Turner TL, Wardrop CAJ (1993) Umbilical cord clamping and preterm infants: a randomised trial. Br Med J 306:171–175Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kitchen WH, Doyle LW, Ford GF et al. (1991) Changing two year outcome of infants weighing 500 to 999 grams at birth: a hospital study. J Pediatr 118:938–943PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Klein RZ, Carlton EL, Faix JD et al. (1997) Thyroid function in very low birth weight infants. Clin Endocrinol 47:411–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Levene MI (1990) Cerebral ultrasound and neurological impairment: telling the future. Arch Dis Child 65:469–471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Linderkamp O, Nelle M, Kraus M, Zilow EP (1992) The effect of early and late cord-clamping on blood viscosity and other hemorheological parameters in full-term neonates. Acta Paediatr Scand 81:745–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Luke B, Williams C, Minogue J, Keith L (1993) The changing pattern of infant mortality in the US: the role of prenatal factors and their obstetrical implications. Int J Gynecol Obstet 40:199–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    McCormick MC (1994) Survival of very tiny babies — good news and bad news. Editorial. N Engl J Med 331:802–803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nopper AJ, Horii KA, Sookdeo-Drost S, Wang TH, Mancini AJ, Lane AT (1997) Topical ointment therapy benefits premature infants. J Pediatr 30:330–332Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Obladen M, Sachsenweger M, Stahnke M (1988) Blood sampling in very low birth weight infants receiving different levels of intensive care. Eur J Pediatr 147:399–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oishi M, Nishida H, Sasaki T (1997) Japanese experience with micropremies weighing less than 600 grams born between 1984 to 1993. Pediatrics 99:E7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Olds DL, Henderson CR Jr, Tatelbaum R (1994) Intellectual impairment in children of women who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy. Pediatrics 93:221–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reuss ML, Paneth N, Lorenz JM, Susser M (1997) Correlates of low thyroxine values at newborn screening among infants born before 32 weeks gestation. Early Hum Dev 47:223–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Romero R, Gomez R, Ghezzi F, Yoon BH, Mazor M, Edwin SS, Berry SM (1998) A fetal systemic inflammatory response is followed by the spontaneous onset of preterm parturition. Am J Obstet Gynecol 179:186–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rooman RP, Du Caju MV, De Beeck LO, Docx M, Van Reempts P, Van Acker KJ (1996) Low thyroxinaemia occurs in the majority of very preterm newborns. Eur J Pediatr 155:211–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sauer PJJ, Dane HJ, Visser HKA (1984) New Standards for the neutral thermal environment of healthy very low birthweight infants during the first week of life. Arch Dis Child 59:18–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sedin G, Hammarlund K, Nilsson GE, Strömberg B, Ake Öberg P (1985) Measurements of transepidermal water loss in newborn infants. Clin Perinatol 12:79–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sjors G, Hammarlund K, Sedin G (1997) Thermal balance in term and preterm newborn infants nursed in an incubator equipped with a radiant heat source. Acta Paediatr 86:403–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Soll RF, Edwards WH (2000) Emollient ointment for preventing infection in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev:CD001150Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tamura T (1996) Zinc nutriture and pregnancy outcome. Nutr Research 16: 139–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Vohra S, Frent G, Campbell V, Abbott M, Whyte R (1999) Effect of polyethylene occlusive skin wrapping on heat loss in very low birth weight infants at delivery: a randomized trial. J Pediatr 134:547–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    van Wassenaer AG, Kok JH, de Vijlder JJ et al. (1997) Effects of thyroxine supplementation on neurologic development in infants born at less than 30 weeks’ gestation. N Engl J Med 336:21–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Westrup B, Kleberg A, von Eichwald K, Stjernqvist K, Lagercrantz H (2000) A randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effects of the newborn individualized developmental care and assessment program in a Swedish setting. Pediatrics 105:66–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Whyte HE, Fitzhardinge PM, Shennan AT, Lennox K, Smith L, Lacy J (1993) Extreme immaturity: outcome of 568 Pregnancies of 23–26 weeks’ gestation. Obstet Gynecol 82:1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wolke D, Meyer R (1994) Psychologische Langzeitbefunde bei sehr untergewichtigen Frühgeborenen. Perinatal Medizin 6:121–123Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wood NS, Marlow N, Costeloe K, Gibson AT, Wilkonson AR (2000) Neurologic and developmental disability after extremely preterm birth. N Engl J Med 343:378–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Working party to discuss nomenclature based on gestational age and birth weight. Proc 2nd Europ Congr Perinatal Medicine, London 1970. Karger, Basel, p 172Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Obladen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations