Mycorrhiza pp 115-136 | Cite as

Somatic Incompatibility in Ectomycorrhizas

  • A. Dahlberg

Abstract

Describing and identifying fungal individuals, i.e. genetically unique mycelia, are key problems in studies of the evolutionary and population biology of ectomycorrhizal fungi. It is only recently that the concept of fungal individualism and methods to identify fungal individuals have been developed (Todd and Rayner 1980). A decade ago, we had little information about intraspecific somatic mycelial interactions within species and an almost complete lack of information regarding the structure and organization of fungal populations. Since then, however, somatic mycelial interactions have been studied in more than 100 fungal species, and the results applied to studies of population structure in almost 50 species (Rayner 1991; Glass and Kuldau 1992). Nevertheless, only a few such studies concern ectomycorrhizal fungi (Fries 1987; Dahlberg and Stenlid 1990, 1994).

Keywords

Biomass Sugar Phosphorus Agar Germinate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams DH, Roth LF (1969) Demarcation lines in paired cultures of Fomes cajanderi as a basis for detecting genetically distinct mycelia. Can J Bot 45: 1583–1589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agerer M (1991) Characterization of ectomycorrhiza. In: Norris JR, Read DJand, Varma AK (eds) Methods in microbiology, vol 23. Academic Press, London, pp 25–73Google Scholar
  3. Arnolds E (1991) Decline of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Europe. Agric Ecosys Environ 35: 209–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrett DK, Uscuplic M (1971) The field distribution of interacting strains of Polyporus schweinitzii and their origin. New Phytol 70: 581–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blakeslee AF (1904) Sexual reproduction in the Mucorinae. Proc Am Acad Sci 40: 205–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boidin J (1986) Intercompatibility and the species concept in saprobic basidomycotina. Mycologia 26: 319–336Google Scholar
  7. Braiser CM (1987) The dynamics of fungal speciation. In: Rayner ADM, Braiser CM, Moore D (eds) Evolutionary biology of the fungi. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 231–260Google Scholar
  8. Braiser CM, Rayner ADM (1987) Whither terminology below the species level in fungi. In: Rayner ADM, Braiser CM, Moore D (eds) Evolutionary biology of the fungi. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 379–288Google Scholar
  9. Buller AHR (1931) Researches on fungi, vol 4. Longmans Green, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Buller AHR (1933) Researches on fungi, vol 5. Longmans Green, LondonGoogle Scholar
  11. Burnett JH (1976) Fundamentals of mycology, 2nd edn. Edward Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Carlie MJ (1987) Genetic exchange and gene flow: their promotion and prevention. In: Rayner ADM, Braiser CM, Moore D (eds) Evolutionary biology of the fungi. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 203–214Google Scholar
  13. Caten CE, Jinks JL (1966) Heterokaryosis: its significance in the wild homothallic ascomycetes and fungi imperfecti. Trans Br Mycol Soc 49: 81–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Childs TW (1963) Poria weirii root rot. Phytopathology 53:1124–1127Google Scholar
  15. Cline ML, France RC, Reid CPP (1987) Intraspecific and interspecific growth variation of ectomycorrhizal fungi at different temperatures. Can J Bot 65: 869–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dahlberg A (1991) Ectomycorrhiza in coniferous forest: structure and dynamics of populations and communities. Doctoral Thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  17. Dahlberg A, Stenlid J (1990) Population structure and dynamics in Suillus bovinus as indicated by spatial distribution of fungal clones. New Phytol 115: 487–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dahlberg A, Stenlid J (1994) Size, distribution and biomass of genets in populations of Suillus bovinus revealed by somatic incompatibility. New Phytol 128: 225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dickman A, Cooke S (1989) Fire and fungus in a mountain hemlock forest. Can J Bot 67: 2005–2016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dowson CG, Rayner ADM, Boddy L (1989) Spatial dynamcs and interactions of the woodland fairy ring fungus Clitocybe nebularis. New Phytol 111: 699–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Egger KN (1991) Analysis of fungal population structure using molecular techniques. In: Carroll GC, Wicklow DT (eds) The fungal community — its organization and role in the ecosystem, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 193–208Google Scholar
  22. Ek M, Ljungqvist PO, Stenström E (1983) Indole-3-acetic acid production by mycorrhizal fungi determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. New Phytol 94: 401–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Esser K (1971) Breeding systems in fungi and their significance for genetic recombination. Mol Gen Genet 110: 86–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Esser K, Blaich R (1973) Heterogenic incompatibility in plants and animals. Adv Genet 17: 107–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fincham JR, Day PR, Radford A (1979) Fungal genetics, 4th edn. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  26. Fogel R, Hunt G (1979) Fungal and arboreal biomass in a western Oregon Douglasfir ecoystem: distribution patterns and turnover. Can J For Res 9: 245–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fries N (1987) Somatic incompatibility and field distribution of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus (Boletaceae). New Phytol 107: 735–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fries N, Mueller GM (1984) Incompatibility systems, cultural features and species circumscriptions in the ectomycorrhizal genus Laccaria ( Agaricales ). Mycologia 76: 633–642Google Scholar
  29. Fries N, Neumann W (1990) Sexual incompatibility in Suillus luteus and S. granulatus. Mycol Res 94: 64–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fries N, Sun Y-P (1992) The mating system of Suillus bovinus. Mycol Res 96: 237–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gardes M, Bruns T (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for Basidiomycetes: applications to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Mol Ecol 2: 113–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Garret SD (1970) Pathogenic root-infecting fungi. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  33. Glass NL, Kuldau GA (1992) Mating type and vegetative incompatibility in filamentous ascomycetes. Annu Rev Phytopathol 30: 201–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gregory PH (1984) The fungal mycelium — a historical perspective. In: Jennings DH, Rayner ADM (eds) The ecology and physiology of the fungal mycelium. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  35. Hallenberg N (1991) Speciation and distribution in Corticiaceae (Basidiomycetes). Plant Syst Evol 177: 93–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hansen E (1979) Sexual and vegetative incompatibility reactions in Phellinus weirii. Can J Bot 57: 1573–1578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harper JL (1977) Population biology of plants. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Heinonen-Tanski H, Holopainen T (1991) Maintenance of ectomycorrhizal fungi. In: Norris JR, Read DJ, Varma AK (eds) Methods in microbiology, vol 23. Academic Press, London, pp 413–422Google Scholar
  39. Holmer L, Stenlid J (1991) Population structure and mating system in Marasmius androsaceus. New Phytol 119: 307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hung L, Trappe J (1983) Growth variation between and within species of ectomycorrhizal fungi in response to pH in vitro. Mycologia 75: 234–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Jahn H, Jahn MA (1986) Konstanz und Fluktuationen der Pilzvegetation in Norra Warleda (Uppland). Beobachtungen auf einem schwedischen Bauernhof 1945–1980. Westfälische Pilzbriefe 10–11: 352–378Google Scholar
  42. Kay E, Vilgalys R (1992) Spatial distribution and genetic relationships among individuals in a natural population of oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Mycologia 84: 174–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Keller G (1992) Isozymes in isolates of Suillus species from Pinus cembra L. New Phytol 120: 351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kile GA (1983) Identification of genotypes and the clonal development of Armillaria luteobubalina Watling and Kile in eucalypt forests. Aust J Bot 31: 657–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kirby JJH, Stenlid J, Holdenrieder 0 (1990) Population structure and responses to disturbance of the basidiomycete Resinicium bicolor. Oecologia 85: 178–184Google Scholar
  46. Kope HH (1992) Interactions of heterokaryotic and homokaryotic mycelium of sibling isolates of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus arhizus. Mycologia 84: 659–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kope HH, Fortin JA (1990) Germination and comparative morphology of basidiospores of Pisolithus arhizus. Mycologia 82: 350–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Korhonen K (1978) Infertility and clonal size in the Armillaria mellea complex. Karstenia 18: 31–42Google Scholar
  49. Korhonen K, Hintikka V (1980) Simple isolation and inoculation methods for fungal cultures. Karstenia 18: 31–42Google Scholar
  50. Kropp BR, Fortin JA (1988) The incompatibility system and relative ectomycorrhizal performance of monokaryons and reconstituted dikaryons of Laccaria bicolor. Can J Bot 66: 289–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kues U, Casselton LA (1992) Fungal mating types — regulators of sexual development. Mycol Res 96: 993–1006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lane EB (1981) Somatic incompatibility in fungi and Myxomycetes. In: Gull K, Oliver SG (eds) The fungal nucleus. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 239–258Google Scholar
  53. Leigh Brown AJ (1989) Population genetics at the DNA level: a review of the contribution of restriction enzyme studies. Oxford Sury Evol Biol 6: 207–242Google Scholar
  54. Lewis KJ and Hansen EM (1991) Vegetative compatible groups and protein electrophoresis indicate a role for basidiospores in spread of Inonotus tomentosus in spruce forest of British Columbia. Can J Bot 69: 1756–1763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. LoBuglio KF, Rogers SO, Wang CJK (1991) Variation in ribosomal DNA among isolates of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Cenococcum geophilum. Can J Bot 69: 2331–2343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Micales JA, Bonde MR, Peterson GL (1986) The use of isoenzyme analysis in fungal taxonomy and genetics. Mycotaxon 27: 405–449Google Scholar
  57. Molina R, Palmer JG (1982) Isolation, maintenance and pure culture manipulation of ectomycorrhizal fungi. In: Schenk NC (ed) Methods and principles of mycorrhizal research. The American Phytopathological Society, St Paul MN, pp 165–174Google Scholar
  58. Molina R, Massicotte H, Trappe J (1992) Specificity phenomena in mycorrhizal symbiosis: community ecological consequences and practical implications. In: Allen MJ (ed) Mycorrhizal functioning — an integrative plant-fungal process. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp 357–423Google Scholar
  59. Newton AC (1992) Towards a functional classification of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza 2: 75–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Piri T, Korhonen K, Sairanen A (1990) Occurrence of Heterobasidion annosum in pure and mixed stands in southern Finland. Scan J For Res 5: 113–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rastin N, Schlecte G, Hütterman A, Rosenplänter K (1990) Seasonal fluctuation of some biological and biochemical soil factors and their dependence on certain soil factors on the upper and lower slope of a spruce forest. Soil Biol Biochem 22: 1049–1061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rayner ADM (1991) The challenge of the individualistic mycelium. Mycologia 83: 48–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rayner ADM, Boddy L (1988) Fungal decomposition of wood — its biology and ecology. John Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  64. Rayner ADM, Todd NK (1977) Intraspecific antagonism in natural populations of wood-decaying basidiomycetes. J Gen Microbiol 103: 85–90Google Scholar
  65. Rayner ADM, Todd NK (1979) Population and community structure and dynamics of fungi in decaying wood. Adv Bot Res 7: 333–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rayner ADM, Todd NK (1982) Population and community structure in wood–decomposing basidiomycetes. In: Frankland JC, Hedger JN, Swift MJ (eds) Decomposer basidiomycetes: their biology and ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 109–128Google Scholar
  67. Rayner ADM, Webber JF (1984) Interspecific mycelial interactions — an overview. In: Jennings DH, Rayner ADM (eds) The ecology and physiology of the fungal mycelium. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 383–418Google Scholar
  68. Rayner ADM, Cotes D, Ainsworth AM, Adams TJH, Williams END, Todd NK (1984) The biological consequences of the individualistic mycelium. In: Jennings DH, Rayner ADM (eds) The ecology and physiology of the fungal mycelium. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 509–540Google Scholar
  69. Sen R (1990) Intraspecific variation in two species of Suillus from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests based on somatic incompatibility and isoenzyme analyses. New Phytol 114: 603–612Google Scholar
  70. Stenlid J (1985) Population structure of Heterobasidion annosum as determined by somatic incompatibility, sexual incompatibility and isoenzyme patterns. Can J Bot 63: 2268–2273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Stenlid J (1987) Controlling and predicting the spread of Heterobasidion annosum from infected stumps and trees of Picea abies. Scan J For Res 2: 187–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Thompson W, Rayner ADM (1982) Spatial structure of a population of Tricholomopsis platyphylla in a woodland site. New Phytol 92: 103–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Todd NK, Rayner ADM (1978) Genetic structure of a natural population of Coriolus versicolor (L. ex Fr.) Quél. Genet Res 32: 55–65Google Scholar
  74. Todd NK, Rayner ADM (1980) Fungal individualism. Sci Prog Oxf 66: 331–354Google Scholar
  75. Tommercup IC, Bougher NL, Malajczuk N (1991) Laccaria fraterna, a common ectomycorrhizal fungus with mono-and bi-sporic basidia and multinucleate spores: comparison with the quadristerigmate, binucleate spored L. laccata and the hypogeous relative Hydnangium carneum. Mycol Res 95: 689–698Google Scholar
  76. Vogt K, Bloomfield J, Ammirati JF, Ammirati SR (1991) Sporocarp production of basidiomycetes, with emphasis on forest ecosystems. In: Carroll GC, Wicklow DT (eds) The Fungal Community — its organization and role in the ecosystem, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 563–582Google Scholar
  77. Wallander H, Nylund J-E (1992) Effects of excess nitrogen and phosphorus starvation on the extramatrical mycelium of Pinus sylvestris L. ectomycorrhiza. New Phytol 120: 495–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zhu H, Higginbotham KO, Danick BP, Navratil S (1988) Intraspecific genetic variability of isoenzymes in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus tomentosum. Can J Bot 66: 588–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Dahlberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forest Mycology and PathologySwedish University of Agriculture SciencesUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations