Mycorrhiza pp 59-77 | Cite as

The Protein Complement of Ectomycorrhizas

  • M. Guttenberger


Proteins have important functions in biological systems. Structural proteins (e.g. the cytoskeleton) are essential for shape and motion of cells and organelles. Enzymes mediate the turnover of substances in primary and secondary metabolism and accomplish the reduplication of DNA as well as the transcription and translation of RNA. Carrier proteins sustain the uptake of nutrients from the environment, the transport of molecules between cells, and the interchange between single compartments within cells. Proteins are further involved in regulatory functions (e.g. post-translational modifications via reversible phosphorylation of proteins or activators/repressors of gene expression), recognition (e.g. lectins), and sensory processes (e.g. photoreceptors). The biosynthesis and turnover as well as the trafficking of proteins are highly regulated processes, which enable cells and organisms to adapt to changes in their environment.


Fungal Mycelium Protein Complement Increase Protein Content Polypeptide Pattern Paxillus Involutus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ba AM, Lapeyrie FF, Garbaye J, Dexheimer J (1992) Early events in ectomycorrhiza formation studied by electron microscopy. In: Read DJ, Lewis DH, Fitter AH, Alexander IJ (eds) Mycorrhizas in ecosystems. University Press, Cambridge, pp 370–371Google Scholar
  2. Colas des Francs C, Thiellement H, De Vienne D (1985) Analysis of leaf proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Plant Physiol 78: 178–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dazzo FB, Truchet GL (1983) Interactions of lectins and their saccharide receptors in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. J Membr Biol 73: 1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dexheimer J, Pargney JC (1991) Comparative anatomy of the host-fungus interface in mycorrhizas. Experientia 47: 312–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Duddridge JA (1986) Specificity and recognition in mycorrhizal associations. In: Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Gianinazzi S (eds) Physiological and genetical aspects of mycorrhizae. Proc. 1st Eur. Symp. on Mycorrhizae, Dijon 1985, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Paris, pp 45–58Google Scholar
  6. Duddridge JA (1987) Specificity and recognition in ectomycorrhizal associations. In: Pegg GF, Ayres PG (eds) Fungal infection of plants. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 25–44Google Scholar
  7. Finlay RD, Ek H, Odham G, Söderström B (1989) Uptake, translocation and assimilation of nitrogen from 15N-labelled ammonium and nitrate sources by intact ectomycorrhizal systems of Fagus sylvatica infected with Paxillus involutus. New Phytol 113: 47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gallagher SR, Carroll EJ Jr, Leonard RT (1986) A sensitive diffusion plate assay for screening inhibitors of protease activity in plant cell fractions. Plant Physiol 81: 869–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gerhold DL, Dazzo FB, Gresshoff PM (1985) Selective removal of seedling root hairs for studies of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. J Microbiol Methods 4: 95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gianinazzi-Pearson V (1984) Host-fungus specificity, recognition and compatibility in mycorrhizae. In: Verma DPS, Höhn TH (eds) Plant gene research. Genes involved in microbe-plant interactions. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 225–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Giollant M, Guillot J, Damez M, Dusser M, Didier P, Didier E (1993) Characterization of a lectin from Lactarius deterrimus. Plant Physiol 101: 513–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gogala N (1991) Regulation of mycorrhizal infection by hormonal factors produced by hosts and fungi. Experientia 47: 331–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Govers F, Gloudemans T, Moerman M, van Kammen A, Bisseling T (1985) Expression of plant genes during the development of pea root nodules. EMBO J 4: 861–867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Gruen HE (1959) Auxins and fungi. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 10:405–440 Guttenberger M, Hampp R (1992) Ectomycorrhizins — symbiosis-specific orartifactual polypeptides from ectomycorrhizas? Planta 188: 129–136Google Scholar
  15. Harley JL, Smith SE (1983) Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Hilbert JL, Martin F (1988a) Modifications des profils polypeptidiques lors del’établissement de la symbiose ectomycorrhizienne. Cryptogam Mycol 9: 221–231Google Scholar
  17. Hilbert JL, Martin F (1988b) Regulation of gene expression in ectomycorrhizas I.Google Scholar
  18. Protein changes and the presence of ectomycorrhiza-specific polypeptides in the Pisolithus-Eucalyptus symbiosis. New Phytol 110:339–346Google Scholar
  19. Hilbert JL, Costa G, Martin F (1991) Ectomycorrhizin synthesis and polypeptide changes during the early stage of eucalypt mycorrhiza development. Plant Physiol 97: 977–984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kottke I, Oberwinkler F (1986) Mycorrhiza of forest trees — structure and function. Trees 1: 1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Laemmli UK (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227: 680–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lapeyrie F, Garbaye J, de Oliveira V, Bellei M (1992) Controlled mycorrhization of eucalypts. In: Read DJ, Lewis DH, Fitter AH, Alexander IJ (eds) Mycorrhizas in ecosystems. University Press, Cambridge, pp 293–299Google Scholar
  23. Legocki RP, Verma DPS (1979) A nodule-specific plant protein (nodulin-35) from soybean. Science 205: 190–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Legocki RP, Verma DPS (1980) Identification of “nodule-specific” host proteins (nodulins) involved in the development of Rhizobium-legume symbiosis. Cell 20: 153–163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lei J, Lapeyrie F, Malajczuk N, Dexheimer J (1990) Infectivity of pine and eucalypt isolates of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker & Couch on roots of Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake in vitro. II. Ultrastructural and biochemical changes at the early stage of mycorrhiza formation. New Phytol 116: 115–122Google Scholar
  26. Loomis WD, Battaile J (1966) Plant phenolic compounds and the isolation of plant enzymes. Phytochemistry 5: 423–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193: 265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Martin FM, Hilbert JL (1991) Morphological, biochemical and molecular changes during ectomycorrhiza development. Experientia 47: 321–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Marx DH (1977) Tree host range and world distribution of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius. Can J Microbiol 23: 217–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Molina R, Trappe JM (1982) Patterns of ectomycorrhizal host specificity and potential among Pacific northwest conifers and fungi. For Sci 28: 423–458Google Scholar
  31. O’Farrell PH (1975) High resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins. J Biol Chem 250: 4007–4021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Pringle JR (1975) Methods for avoiding proteolytic artefacts in studies of enzymes and other proteins from yeast. In: Prescott DM (ed) Methods in cell biology, vol 12. Academic Press, New York, pp 149–184Google Scholar
  33. Ramstedt M, Söderhäll K (1983) Protease, phenoloxidase and pectinase activities in mycorrhizal fungi. Trans Br Mycol Soc 81: 157–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rupp LA, Mudge KW (1985) Ethephon and auxin induce mycorrhiza-like changes in the morphology of root organ cultures of Mugho pine. Physiol Plant 64: 316–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Salmanowicz B, Nylund JE (1988) High performance liquid chromatography determination of ergosterol as a measure of ectomycorrhiza infection in Scots pine. Eur J For Pathol 18: 291–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sen R (1990) Isozymic identification of individual ectomycorrhizas synthesized between Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and isolates of two species of Sui//us. New Phytol 114: 617–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Seviour RJ, Chilvers GA (1972) Electrophoretic characterization of eucalypt mycorrhizas. New Phytol 71: 1107–1110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Simoneau P, Viemont JD, Moreau JC, Strullu DG (1993) Symbiosis-related polypeptides associated with the early stages of ectomycorrhiza organogenesis in birch (Betula pendula Roth). New Phytol 124: 495–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tang C, Kuo J, Longnecker NE, Thomson CJ, Robson AD (1993) High pH causes disintegration of the root surface in Lupinus angustifolius L. Ann Bot 71: 201— 207Google Scholar
  40. Trofast J, Wickberg B (1977) Mycorrhizin A and chloromycorrhizin A, two antibiotics from a mycorrhizal fungus of Monotropa hypopitys L. Tetrahedron 33: 875–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Vanderplank JE (1978) Genetic and molecular basis of plant pathogenesis. In: Yaron B (ed) Advanced series in agricultural sciences, vol 6. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Weiß M (1991) Pisolithus tinctorius. In: Agerer R (ed) Colour atlas of ectomycorrhizae, Einhorn, Schwäbisch Gmünd, plate 63Google Scholar
  43. Wyss P, Mellor RB, Wiemken A (1990) Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas of wild-type soybean and non-nodulating mutants with Glomus mosseae contain symbiosis-specific polypeptides (mycorrhizins), immunologically cross-reactive with nodulins. Planta 182: 22–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Guttenberger
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Biology DivisionSamuel Roberts Nobel FoundationArdmoreUSA

Personalised recommendations