Advertisement

Monoklonale Antikörpertechnik

  • Günter Pasternak
Part of the Handbuch der Molekularen Medizin book series (HDBMOLEK, volume 1)

Zusammenfassung

Antikörper sind Moleküle der körpereigenen immunologischen Abwehr bei Mensch und Tier. Ihre Spezifität und damit Vielfalt scheint unbegrenzt, reagieren sie doch nicht nur mit den unterschiedlichen Viren, Bakterien oder Pilzen, sondern auch mit natürlicherweise nicht vorkommenden Substanzen aus dem Labor. Die als Antigene bezeichneten Komponenten, mit denen die Antikörper reagieren, sind meist Proteine, Polypeptide oder Kohlenhydrate. Antikörper erkennen Antigene als 3dimensionale Strukturen, d. h. Antigenerkennung ist Mustererkennung. Für jedes Muster gibt es zahlreiche mehr oder weniger gut passende Antikörper, die untereinander durch bestimmte strukturelle Differenzen charakterisiert sind. Antikörperbildung erfolgt nach Kontakt des Antigens mit Zellen des Immunsystems. Dieser Prozeß ist außerordentlich komplex und schließt die intrazellulare Aufarbeitung bzw. Zerlegung von großen Molekülen in kleinere antigene Fragmente und die Kooperation verschiedener Zelltypen ein, bis es nach Differenzierung der B-Lymphozyten-Vorstufen zur Bildung Antikörper-produzierender Plasmazellen kommt.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Abrams P G (1990) Specific targeting of cancer with monoclonal antibodies. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In: Vaeth JM, Meyer JL (eds) The present and future role of monoclonal antibodies in the management of cancer. Front Radiat Ther Oncol 24:182–185Google Scholar
  2. Addison G M, Hales C N (1970) The immunoradiometric assay. In: Kirkham K E, Hunter W M (eds) Radioimmunoassay methods. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London New York, pp 447–461Google Scholar
  3. Apperley J F, Mauro F R, Goldman J M, Gregory W, Arthur C K, Hows J, Arcese W, Papa G, Mandelli F, Wardle D et al. (1988) Bone marrow transplantation for chronic myeloid leukaemia in first chronic phase: importance of a graft-versus-leukaemia effect. Br J Haematol 69:239–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagshawe K D (1987) Antibody directed enzymes revive anti-cancer prodrugs concept. Br J Cancer 56:531–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bagshawe K D, Springer C J, Searle F, Antoniv P, Sharma S K, Melton R G, Sherwood R F (1988) A cytotoxic agent can be generated selectively at cancer sites. Br J Cancer 58:700–703PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagshawe K D, Sharma S K, Springer C J, Antoniv P, Boden J A, Rogers G T, Burke P J, Melton R G, Sherwood R F (1991) Antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT): clinical report. Dis Markers 9:233–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bagshawe K D, Sharma S K, Springer C J, Rogers G T (1994) Antibody directed prodrug therapy (ADEPT). A review of some theoretical, experimental and clinical aspects. Ann Oncol 5:879–891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Barbas III C F (1995) Synthetic human antibodies. Nature Med 1:837–839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barbas III C F, Bain J D, Hoekstra B M, Lerner R A (1992) Semisynthetic combinatorial antibody libraries: a chemical solution to the diversity problems. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:4457–4461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Barbas III C F, Hu D, Dunlop N, Sawyer L, Cababa D, Hendry R M, Nara P L, Burton D A (1994) In vitro evolution of a neutralizing human antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to enhance affinity and broaden strain cross-reactivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:3809–3813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barclay A N, Birkleand M L, Brown M H, Beyers A D, Davis S J, Somoza C, Williams A F (1993) The leukocyte antigen. Facts book. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Batra J K, Chaudhary V K, FitzGerald D, Pastan I (1990) TGFa-anti-Tac(Fv)-PE40: a bifunctional toxin cytotoxic for cells with EGF or IL2 receptors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 171:1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Benkovic S J (1992) Catalytic antibodies. Annu Rev Biochem 61:29–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bentz M, Cabot G, Moos M, Speicher M R, Ganser A, Lichter P, Döhner H (1994) Detection of chimeric bcr-abl genes on bone marrow samples and blood smears in chronic myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia by in situ hybridization. Blood 83:1922–1928PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bird R E, Hardmann K D, Jacobson J W, Johnson S, Kaufman B M, Lee S-M, Lee T, Pope S H, Riordan G S, Whitlow M (1988) Single-chain antigen-binding proteins. Science 242:423–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bolognesi A, Tazzari P L, Legnamc G, Olivieri F, Modena D, Conte R, Stirpe F (1995) Anti-CD30 immunotoxins with native and recombinant dianthin 30. Cancer Immunol Immunother 40:109–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brinkmann U, Pastan I (1994) Immunotoxins against cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta 1198:27–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brinkmann U, Pai L H, FitzGerald D J, Willingham M, Pastan I (1991) B3(Fv)-PE38KDEL, a single-chain immunotoxin that causes complete regression of a human carcinoma in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:8616–8620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown P S, Parenteau G L, Dirbas F M, Garsia R J, Goldman C K, Bukowski M A, Junghans R P, Queen C, Hakimi J, Benjamin W R, Clark R E, Waldman TA (1991) Anti-Tac-H, a humanized antibody to the interleukin 2 receptor, prolongs primate cardiac allograft survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:2663–2667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Burton D R, Barbas C F, Persson M A A, Koenig S, Chanock R M, Lerner R A (1991) A large array of human monoclonal antibodies to type 1 human immunodeficiency virus from combinatorial libraries of asymptomatic seropositive individuals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:134–137Google Scholar
  21. Burton D R, Pyati J, Koduri R, Sharp S J, Thornton G B, Parren P W H I, Sawyer L S W, Hendry R M, Dunlop N, Nara P L, Lamacchia M, Garratty E, Stiehm E R, Bryson Y J, Cao Y, Moore J P, Ho D D, Barbas III C F (1994) Efficient neutralization of primary isolates of HIV-1 by a recombinant human monoclonal antibody. Science 226:1024–1027Google Scholar
  22. Capon D J, Chamow S M, Mordenti J, Marsters S A, Gregory T, Mitsuya H, Byrn R A, Lucas C, Wurm F M, Groopman J E, Broder S, Smith D H (1989) Designing CD4 immunoadhesins for AIDS therapy. Nature 337:525–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chamow S M, Zhang D Z, Tan X Y, Mhatre S M, Marsters S A, Peers D H, Byrn R A, Ashkenazi A, Junghans R P (1994) A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to kill HIV-1-infected cells. J Immunol 153:4268–4280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chatal J F, Saccavini J C, Fumoleau P et al. (1984) Immunoscintigraphy of colon carcinoma. J Nucl Med 25:307–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chaudhary V K, Queen C, Junghans R P, Waldmann T A, FitzGerald D J, Pastan I (1989) A recombinant immunotoxin consisting of two antibody variable domains fused to Pseudomonas exotoxin. Nature 339:394–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Choe M, Webber K O, Pastan I (1994) B3(Fab)-PE38M: a recombinant immunotoxin in which a mutant form of Pseudomonas exotoxin is fused to the Fab fragment of monoclonal antibody B3. Cancer Res 54:3460–3467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Civin C E, Strauss L C, Fackler M J, Trischmann T M, Wiley J M, Loken M R (1990) Positive cell selection-basic science. Prog Clin Biol Res 333:387–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Co M S, Queen C (1991) Humanized antibodies for therapy. Nature 351:501–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Connors T A, Knox R J (1995) Prodrugs in cancer chemotherapy. Stem Cells 13:501–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cosini A B, Burton R C, Colvin R B, Goldstein G, Delmonico F L, LaQuaglia M P, Tolkoff-Rubin M, Rubin R H, Herrin J T, Russel P S (1981) Treatment of acute renal allograft rejection with OKT3 monoclonal antibody. Transplantation 32:535–539Google Scholar
  31. Davis L S, Wacholtz M C, Lipsky P E (1989) The induction of T cell unresponsiveness by rapidly modulating CD3. J Immunol 142:1084–1094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dudley R (1994) CIBA corning ACS™: 180. In: Wild D (ed) The immunoassay handbook. Stockton Press, New York, pp 161–164Google Scholar
  33. Ely P, Haase A, Wietgrefe S, Zupancic M, Beneke J, Hertz M, Miller W (1992) A new in situ hybridization technique for spliced RNA species documents the bone marrow origin of pulmonary macrophages in chronic myelogenous leukemia. Blood 80:2321–2325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Eshhar Z, Waks T, Gross G, Lustgarten J, Bach N, Fitzer-Attas C-J, Ratner A, Schindler D G (1995) Redirecting effector lymphocytes using chimeric receptors with antitumor specificity. Symposium on monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy, New York, October 16-18. Abstract-Band, S 11Google Scholar
  35. Fleuren G J, Gorter A, Kuppen P J K, Litvinov S, Warnaar S O (1995) Tumor heterogeneity and immunotherapy of cancer. Immunol Rev 145:91–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Garin-Chesa P, Old L J, Rettig W J (1990) Cell surface glycoprotein of reactive stromal fibroblasts as a potential antibody target in human epithelial cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:7235–7239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gearing A J H, Newman W (1993) Circulating adhesion molecules in disease. Immunol Today 14:506–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ghetie M-A, Vitetta E S (1994a) Recent developments in immunotoxin therapy. Curr Opin Immunol 6:707–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ghetie V, Vitetta ES (1994b) Immunotoxins in the therapy of cancer: From the bench to clinic. Pharmacol Ther 63:209–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gilleece M H, Dexter T M (1993) Effect of campath-1H antibody on human hematopoietic progenitors in vitro. Blood 82:807–812PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Goldenberg D M (1990) The present and future role of monoclonal antibodies in the management of cancer. Front Radiat Ther Oncol 24:90–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Göttlinger C, Mechtold B, Meyer K L, Radbruch A (1992) Setup of a flow sorter. In: Radbruch A (ed) Flow cytometry and cell sorting. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 153–158Google Scholar
  43. Green L L, Hardy M C, Maynard-Currie C E, Tsuda H, Louie D M, Mendez M J, Abderrahim H, Noguchi M, Smith D H, Zeng Y, David N E, Sasai H, Garza D, Brenner D G, Hales J F, McGuinnes R P, Capon D J, Klapholz S, Jakobovits A (1994) Antigen-specific human monoclonal antibodies from mice engineered with human Ig heavy and light chain YACs. Nature Gen 7:13–21Google Scholar
  44. Gruber M, Schodin B A, Wilson E R, Kranz D M (1994) Efficient tumor cell lysis mediated by a bispecific single chain antibody expressed in Escherichia coli. J Immunol 152:5368–5374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gruber R, Mack M, Kufer P, Riethmüller G (1995) Recombinant bispecific single-chain miniantibody mediates tumor cell cytotoxicity by activating resting T cells without costimulatory signals. Symposium on monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy, New York, October 16-18. Abstract-Band, W 33Google Scholar
  46. Güssow D, Seemann G (1991) Humanization of monoclonal antibodies. Methods Enzymol 203:99–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Haber E (1992) Engineered antibodies as pharmacological tools. Immunol Rev 130:189–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Harlow E, Lane D (1988) A laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NYGoogle Scholar
  49. Herlyn M, Steplewski Z, Herlyn D, Koprowski H (1979) Colorectal carcinoma-specific antigen: detection by means of monoclonal antibodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:1438–1442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Herve P, Racadot E, Wendling D, Rumbach L, Tiberghien P, Cahn J Y, Flesch M, Wijdenes J (1992) Use of monoclonal antibodies in vivo as a therapeutic strategy for alloimmune or autoimmune reactivity: the Besançon experience. Immunol Rev 129:31–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Herzenberg L A (1992) Introduction. In: Radbruch A (ed) Flow cytometry and cell sorting. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  52. Holliger P, Prospero T, Winter G (1993) “Diabodies”: small bivalent and bispecific antibody fragments. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:6444–6448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Hopman AHN, Poddighe P, Moesker O, Ramaekers F C S (1992) Interphase cytogenetics: an approach to the detection of genetic aberration in tumours. In: Herrington CS, McGee J O’D (eds) Diagnostic molecular pathology. A practical approach. IRL Press, Oxford, S 141–167Google Scholar
  54. Howell A L, Fanger M W (1995) Targeted cytotoxicity of infectious agents and infected cells. In: Fanger M W (ed) Bispecific antibodies. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York & Landes, Austin, pp 89–106Google Scholar
  55. Huse W D, Sastry L, Iverson S A, Kang A S, Alting-Mees M, Burton D R, Benkovic S J, Lerner R A (1989) Generation of a large combinatorial library of the immunoglobulin repertoire in phage lambda. Science 246:1275–1281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Huston J S, Mudgett-Hunter M, Tai M-S, McCartney J, Warren F, Haber E, Oppermann H (1991) Protein engineering of single-chain Fv analogs and fusion proteins. Methods Enzymol 203:46–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jakobovits A, Moore A L, Green L L, Vergara G J, Maynard-Currie C E, Austin H A, Klapholz S (1993a) Germ-line transmission and expression of a human-derived yeast artificial chromosome. Nature 362:255–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Jakobovits A, Vergara G J, Kennedy J L, Hales J F, McGuinnes R P, Casentini-Borocz D E, Brenner D G, Otten G R (1993b) Analysis of homozygous mutant chimeric mice: deletion of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain joining region blocks B-cell development and antibody production. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:2551–2555PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Johnson S, Bird R E (1991) Construction of single-chain Fv derivatives of monoclonal antibodies and their production in Escherichia coli. Methods Enzymol 203:88–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Jurcic J G, Scheinberg D A (1994) Recent developments in the radioimmunotherapy of cancer. Curr Opin Immunol 6:715–721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kaminski M S (1995) Non-myeloablative radioimmunotherapy of B-cell lymphoma with radiolabeled anti-CD20 antibodies. Symposium on monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy, New York, October 16-18. Abstract-Band, S 27Google Scholar
  62. Kaminski M S, Zasadny K R, Francis I R, Milik AW, Ross C W, Moon S D, Crawford S M, Burgess J M, Petry N A, Butchko G M, Glenn S D, Wahl R L (1993) Radioimmunotherapy of B-cell lymphoma with 131J-anti-Bl (antiCD20) antibody. N Engl J Med 329:459–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Karawajew L, Micheel B, Behrsing O, Gaestel M (1987) Bispecific antibody-producing hybrid hybridomas selected by a fluorescence activated cell sorter. J Immunol Methods 96:265–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Knapp W, Dörken B, Gilks W R, Rieber E P, Schmidt R E, Stein H, Borne A E G Kr. von dem (eds) (1989) Leucocyte typing IV. White cell differentiation antigens. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 1–1182Google Scholar
  65. Köhler G, Milstein C (1975) Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256:495–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Krause D S, Fackler M J, Civin C I, May W S (1996) CD34: Structure, biology, and clinical utility. Blood 87:1–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kufer P, Mack M, Gruber R, Riethmüller G (1995) A bispecific single-chain antibody of high purity and yield produced by functional expression in mammalian cells for redirecting T-lymphocytes against epithelial tumor cells. Symposium on monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy. New York, October 16-18. Abstract-Band, T 20Google Scholar
  68. Kurucz I, Titus J A, Jost C R, Jacobus C M, Segal D M (1995) Retargeting of CTL by an efficiently refolded bispecific single-chain Fv dimer produced in bacteria. J Immunol 154:4576–4582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Landry D W, Zhao K, Yang G X-Q, Glickman M, Georgiadis T M (1993) Antibody-catalyzed degradation of cocaine. Science 259:1899–1901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lebkowski J S, Schain L R, Okrongly D et al. (1992) Rapid isolation of human hematopoietic stem cells — purging of human tumour cells. Transplantation 53:1011–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lee F T, Scott A M, Hutchinson D, Cebon J, Sturrock S, Plunkett D, Armes J, Sinclair R, Welt S, Old L J (1995) Preclinical studies with intact and F(ab’)2 CDR-grafted humanized anti-colorectal monoclonal antibody A33. Symposium on monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy. New York, October 16-18. Abstract-Band, MO 7Google Scholar
  72. Lerner R A, Benkovic S J, Schultz P G (1991) At the crossroads of chemistry and immunology: Catalytic antibodies. Science 252:659–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Lerner R A, Kang A S, Bain J D, Burton D R, Barbas III C F (1992) Antibodies without immunization. Science 258:1313–1314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Lichter P, Cremer T (1986) Chromosome analysis by nonisotopic in situ hybridization. In: Davies K E (ed) Human genetic diseases. A practical approach. IRL Press, Oxford, pp 157–191Google Scholar
  75. Litvinov S V, Velders M P, Bakker HAM, Fleuren G J, Warnaar S O (1994) Ep-CAM: a human epithelial antigen is a homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecule. J Cell Biol 125:437–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Markoe A M, Brady L W, Woo D, Amendola B, Karlsson U, Fisher S, Micaily B, Rackover M, Bulova S, Steplewski Z, Koprowski H (1990) In: Vaeth J M, Meyer J L (eds) The present and future role of monoclonal antibodies in the management of cancer. Front Radiat Ther Oncol 24:214–224Google Scholar
  77. Mendelsohn J (1995) Antireceptor antibodies as anticancer therapy: Preclinical and clinical studies. Symposium on monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy. New York, October 16-18. Abstract-Band, S 18Google Scholar
  78. Mendez M J, Abderrahim H, Noguchi M, David N E, Hardy M C, Green L L, Tsuda H, Yoast S, Maynard-Currie C E, Garza D, Gemmil R, Jakobovits A, Klapholz S (1995) Analysis of the structural integrity of YACs comprising human Immunoglobulin genes in yeast and in embryonic stem cells. Genomics 26:294–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Milstein C, Cuello A C (1984) Hybrid hybridomas and the production of bi-specific monoclonal antibodies. Immunol Today 5:299–304Google Scholar
  80. Morrison S L, Johnson M J, Herzenberg L A, Oi V T (1984) Chimeric human antibody molecules: mouse antigen-binding domains with human constant region domains. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:6851–6855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Mottram P (1994) Wallac Delfia®. In: Wild D (ed) The immunoassay handbook. Stockton Press, New York, pp 236–239Google Scholar
  82. Nisonoff A, Palmer J L (1964) Hybridization of half molecules of rabbit gamma globulin. Science 143:376–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. O’Hare M, Brown A N, Hussain K, Gebhardt A, Watson G, Roberts L M, Vitetta E S, Thorpe P E, Lord J M(1990) Cytötoxicity of a recombinant ricin-A-chain fusion protein containing a proteolytically cleavable spacer sequence. FEBS Lett 273:200–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Osbourn J K, Allen D, Field A, Pritchard K, Earnshaw J, MacCafferty J, Begent R, Boxer G, Chester K (1995) Isolation of a completely human, high affinity anti-CEAscFv from a large phage display library. Symposium on monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy. New York, October 16-18. Abstract-Band, T 22Google Scholar
  85. Padlan E A (1994) Anatomy of the antibody molecule. Mol Immunol 31:169–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Pastan I H, Archer G E, McLendon R E, Friedman H S, Fuchs H E, Wang Q-C, Pai L H, Herndon J, Bigner D D (1995a) Intrathecal administration of single-chain immunotoxin, LMB-7 [B3(Fv)-PE38], produces cures of carcinomatous meningitis in a rat model. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:2765–2769PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Pastan I H, Pai L H, Kreitman R, FitzGerald D (1995b) The development of recombinant toxins for the treatment of cancer. Symposium on monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy. New York, October 16-18. Abstract-Band, S 20Google Scholar
  88. Pasternak G, Pasternak L (1995) Behavior in vitro of long-term cultured bone marrow or blood cells from chronic myeloid leukemia: adhesion molecules and differentiation antigens as detected by immunocytochemistry. Folia Biol (Praha) 40:439–454Google Scholar
  89. Paulus H (1985) Preparation and biomedical applications of bispecific antibodies. Behring Inst Mitt 78:118–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Pietersz G A (1995) Novel 32P-binding and 99mTc-binding single chain antibodies for radioimmunotherapy and radioimaging of cancer. Symposium on monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy. New York, October 16-18. Abstract-Band, T 24Google Scholar
  91. Pigott R, Power C (1993) The adhesion molecule. Facts book. Academic Press, New York LondonGoogle Scholar
  92. Posner B, Smiley J, Lee I, Benkovic S (1994) Catalytic antibodies: perusing combinatorial libraries. TIPS 19:145–150Google Scholar
  93. Press O W, Eary J F, Appelbaum F R, Martin P J, Badger C C, Nelp W B, Glenn S, Butchko G, Fisher D, Porter B, Matthews D C, Fisher L D, Bernstein I D (1993) Radiolabeled-antibody therapy of B cell lymphoma with autologous bone marrow support. N Engl J Med 329:1219–1224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Press O W, Eary J, Martin P, Appelbaum F, Nelp W, Matthews D, Fisher D, Shochat D, Bernstein I (1995) High dose radioimmunotherapy of relapsed B cell lymphomas. Symposium on monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy. New York, October 16-18. Abstract-Band, S 19Google Scholar
  95. Rettig W J (1995) Tumor specifity and modularity of antigenic phenotypes. Symposium on monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy. New York, October 16-18. Abstract-Band, SO 3Google Scholar
  96. Rettig W J, Garin-Chesa P, Healey J H, Su S L, Jaffe E A, Old L J (1992) Identification of endosialin, a cell surface glycoprotein of vascular endothelial cells in human cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:10832–10836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Riechmann L, Clark M, Waldmann H, Winter G (1988) Reshaping human antibodies for therapy. Nature 332:323–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Riethmüller G, Rieber E P, Kiefersauer S, Prinz J, Lubbe P van der, Meiser B, Breedveld F, Eisenberg J, Krüger K, Deusch K, Sanders M, Reiter C (1992) From antilymphocyte serum to therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. First experiences with a chimeric CD4 antibody in the treatment of autoimmune disease. Immunol Rev 129:81–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Riethmüller G, Schneider-Gädicke E, Schlimok G, Schmiegel W, Raab R, Höffken K, Gruber R, Pichlmaier H, Hirche H, Pichlmaier R, Buggisch P, Witte J et al. (1994) Randomised trial of monoclonal antibody for adjuvant therapy of resected Dukes’ C colorectal carcinoma. Lancet 343:1177–1183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Roberts VA, Stewart J, Benkovic S J, Getzoff E D (1994) Catalytic antibody model and mutagenesis implicate arginine in transition-state stabilization. J Mol Biol 235:1098–1116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Rosok M J, Eghtedarzadeh M, Harris L, Bajorath J, Hellström I, Hellström K E, Yelton D, Glaser S, Cruz G, Kristensson K, Lin H, Huse W (1995) Affinity maturation and humanization of the BR96 anti-carcinoma antibody by codon-based mutagenesis. Symposium on monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy. New York, October 16-18. Abstract-Band, T 26Google Scholar
  102. Rubenstein K E, Schneider R S, Ullmann E F (1972) Homogeneous enzyme immunoassay. A new immunochemical technique. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 47:846–850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Scanlan M J, Raj B K M, Calvo B, Garin-Chesa P, Sanz-Moncasi M P, Healey J H, Old L J, Rettig W J (1994) Molecular cloning of fibroblast activation protein a, a member of the serine protease family selectively expressed in stromal fibroblasts of epithelial cancers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:5657–5661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Schier R, McCall A, Adams G P, Wolf E J, Apell G, Weiner L M, Marks J D (1995) High affinity human anti-c-erbB-2 single chain Fv from human combinatorial phage antibody libraries. Symposium on monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy. New York, October 16-18. Abstract-Band, T 27Google Scholar
  105. Shalaby M R, Shepard H M, Presta L, Rodrigues M L, Beverley PCL, Feldmann M, Carter P (1992) Development of humanized bispecific antibodies reactive with cytotoxic lymphocytes and tumor cells overexpressing the Her2 protooncogen. J Exp Med 175:217–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Shaw D R, Khazaeli M B, LoBuglio A F (1988) Mouse/human chimeric antibodies to a tumor-associated antigen: biologic activity of the four human IgG subclasses. J Natl Cancer Inst 19:1553–1559Google Scholar
  107. Shizuru J A, Alters S E, Fathman C G (1992) Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies in therapy: creation of nonclassical tolerance in the adult. Immunol Rev 129:105–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Soini E, Kojola H (1983) Time resolved fluorometer for lanthanide chelates-a new generation of non-isotopic immunoassays. Clin Chem 29:65–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Springer C J, Poon G K, Sharma S K, Bagshawe K D (1993) Identification of prodrug, active drug, and metabolites in an ADEPT clinical study. Cell Biophys 22:9–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Springer G (1996) Mikrometastasen im Visier monoklonaler Antikörper. Beilage in J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 122:1–4Google Scholar
  111. Springer T A (1990) Adhesion receptors of the immune system. Nature 346:425–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Steplewski Z, Sun L K, Shearman C W, Ghrayeb J, Daddona P, Koprowski H (1988) Biological activity of humanmouse IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 chimeric monoclonal antibodies with antitumor specificity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:4852–4856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Strom T B, Kelley V R, Woodworth T G, Murphy J R (1992) Interleukin-2 receptor-directed immunosuppressive therapies: antibody-or cytokine-based targeting molecules. Immunol Rev 129:131–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Sun M, Gao Q S, Li L, Paul S (1994) Proteolytic activity of an antibody light chain. J Immunol 153:5121–5126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Suzuki H (1994) Recent advances in abzyme studies. J Biochem 115:623–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Thorpe P E, Wallace P M, Knowles P P, Relf M G, Brown A N F, Watson G J, Knyba R E, Wawrzynczak E J, Blakey D C (1987) New coupling agents for the synthesis of immunotoxins containing a hindered disulfide bond with improved stability in vivo. Cancer Res 47:5924–5931PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Traunecker A, Schneider J, Kiefer H, Karjalainen K (1989) Highly efficient neutralization of HIV with recombinant CD4-immunoglobulin molecules. Nature 339:68–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Traunecker A, Lanzavecchia A, Karjalainen K (1991) Bispecific single chain molecules (Janusins) target cytotoxic lymphocytes on HIV infected cells. EMBO J 10:3655–3659PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Vitetta E, Thorpe P E, Uhr J (1993) Immunotoxins: magic bullets or misguided missiles? TIPS 14:148–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Waldmann M, Polliak A, Hale G, Or R, Cividalli G, Weiss L, Weshler Z, Samuel S, Manor D, Brautbar C, Rachmilewitz E A, Slavin S (1984) Elimination of graft-versus-host disease by in vitro depletion of alloreative lymphocytes with a monoclonal rat anti-human lymphocyte antibody (CAMPATH-1). Lancet 2:483–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Waldmann T (1995) The promiscuous IL-2/IL-15 receptor: a target for immunotherapy of leukemia/lymphoma. Symposium on monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy. New York, October 16-18. Abstract-Band, S 9Google Scholar
  122. Wang J-W, Ambros R A, Weber P B, Rosano T G (1995) Fucosyltransferase and a-L-fucosidase activities and fucose levels in normal and malignant endometrial tissue. Cancer Res 55:3654–3658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Welt S (1995) Radioimmunotherapy of colon cancer with monoclonal antibody A33. Symposium on monoclonal antibodies and cancer therapy. New York, October 16-18, Abstract-Band, S 08Google Scholar
  124. Welt S, Divgi C R, Real F X, Yeh S D, Garin-Chesa P, Finstad C L, Sakamoto J et al. (1990) Quantitative analysis of antibody localization in human metastatic colon cancer: a phase I study of monoclonal antibody A33. J Clin Oncol 8:1894–1906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Welt S, Divgi C R, Scott A M, Garin-Chesa P, Finn R D, Graham M, Carswell E A, Cohen A, Larson S M, Old L J, Rettig W J (1994) Antibody targeting in metastatic colon cancer: a phase I study of monoclonal antibody F19 against a cell surface protein of reactive tumor stromal fibroblasts. J Clin Oncol 12:1193–1203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Wild D (ed) (1994) The immunoassay handbook. Stockton Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  127. Winter G, Harris W J (1993) Antibody-based therapy. TIPS 14:139–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Woo D V, Li D, Brady L W, Emrich J, Mattis J, Steplewski Z (1990) Auger electron damage induced by radioiodinated iodine 125 monoclonal antibodies. In: Vaeth J M, Meyer J L (eds) The present and future role of monoclonal antibodies in the management of cancer. Front Radiat Ther Oncol 24:47–63Google Scholar
  129. Wright A, Shin S-U, Morrison S L (1992) Genetically engineered antibodies: progress and prospects. Crit Rev Immunol 12:125–168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Wynter E A de, Coutinho L H, Pei X, Marsh J C W, Hows J, Luft T, Testa N G (1995) Comparison of purity and enrichment of CD34+cells from bone marrow, umbilical cord and peripheral blood (primed for apheresis) using five separation systems. Stem Cells (Dayt) 13:524–532Google Scholar
  131. Yalow R S, Berson S A (1959) Assay of plasma insulin in human subjects by immunological methods. Nature 184:1648–1649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Yalow R S, Berson S A (1960) Immunoassay of endogenous plasma insulin in man. J Clin Invest 39:1157–1175PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Günter Pasternak

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations