Symmetries and Symmetry Operations: A First Overview

  • Hermann Haken
  • Hans Christoph Wolf
Part of the Advanced Texts in Physics book series (ADTP)


In this chapter, we cover the fundamentals and theoretical approaches which we will need for — among other things — determining the wavefunctions and the energies of the π-electrons in benzene. A second example will be the ethene molecule.


Benzene Hexagonal Butadiene 


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  1. Wagnière, G.: Introduction to Elementary Molecular Orbital Theory and to Semiempirical Methods, Lecture Notes Chem., Vol. 1 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hermann Haken
    • 1
  • Hans Christoph Wolf
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Theoretische PhysikUniversität StuttgartStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Physikalisches InstitutUniversität StuttgartStuttgartGermany

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