Ethylene and Jasmonate as Regulators of Cell Death in Disease Resistance

  • Christian Langebartels
  • Jaakko Kangasjärvi
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 170)


Plants in ecosystems are exposed in parallel to a variety of environmental challenges such as xenobiotics, heavy metals and air pollutants as well as biotic invaders such as microbial pathogens and herbivorous insects. They have developed effective recognition, signal transduction and defense mechanisms to counteract these abiotic and biotic stressors (Inzé and Van Montagu 1995; Karban and Baldwin 1997). These strategies include local responses at the site of insult as well as systemic responses throughout the affected organ and the entire plant. Moreover, communication through the gas phase and the root-soil interphase, the rhizosphere, is affected, which will most probably influence other organisms in the ecosystem (Van Loon et al. 1998; Farmer 2001). During the past years, evidence has accumulated showing that most of the abiotic and biotic stressors produce sublethal effects on field-grown plants, which nevertheless can have a greater effect on population size than does acute toxicity.


Aldehyde Catalase Histidine Betula Nicotin Amide 


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Langebartels
  • Jaakko Kangasjärvi

There are no affiliations available

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