Ion beam technology is of vital importance in the area of microfabrication. Focused ion beam (FIB) technology has found numerous applications in experimental electronic and electro-optic device fabrication (Kalburge et al. 1997; Konig et al. 1998), ion implantation research (Musil et al. 1996; Crell et al. 1997), device patterning (Gamo 1991; Nagamuchi et al. 1996), and FIB simulated deposition of conductors and opaque films (Vasile and Harriott 1989; Gross et al. 1990). Commercial uses of FIB include preparation of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens, integrated circuit (IC) design and repair, diagnostics, and reverse engineering in the IC industry (Nikawa 1991; Banerjee and Livengood 1993; Prewett 1993; Giannuzzi and Stevie 1999; Krueger 1999). The FIB technology is based on the formation and deflection of high resolution ion beams from a liquid ion source (Bell and Swanson 1985; Orloff 1993). New applications for FIB are in high aspect ratio microstructure fabrication. Exploration of FIB microfabrication at the laboratory scale has been undertaken by Ishitani (1990), and Young (1993). Vasile et al. (1999, 1998, 1991) demonstrated the potential application of FIB in microstructure fabrication by producing microtools for ultraprecision machining, microsurgical tools and manipulators, tips for scanning probe microscopy, and arbitrary three-dimensional shapes. One aspect of the FIB microfabrication capability is its usefulness in the making of embossing masters or molds for mass production of microstructures.
KeywordsUltraprecision Machine High Aspect Ratio Microstructure Integrate Circuit Industry Pixel Dwell Time American Vacuum Society
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