From iron to steel

  • Madeleine Durand-Charre
Part of the Engineering Materials and Processes book series (EMP)


Man’s relationship with iron goes back deep into prehistoric times, and is presently believed to cover at least seven millennia. Fragments of iron and small iron objects such as beads, blades and decorative inlays have been found in archaeological sites dating to around 5000 BC, in Irak (Samarra), Iran (Tepe Sialk) and Egypt (El Gerseh). Later discoveries, corresponding to the early bronze age (3000–2000 BC) and middle bronze age (2000–1600 BC), are all situated in the east and south-east of the Mediterranean Basin, in Mesopotamia, Turkey, Egypt and Cyprus.


Cast Iron Meteoritic Iron Bamboo Charcoal Iron Smelting Iron Object 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Madeleine Durand-Charre
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut National Polytechnique de GrenobleFrance

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