Injection and Extraction

  • Michiko G. Minty
  • Frank Zimmermann
Part of the Particle Acceleration and Detection book series (PARTICLE)


In transferring the beam from one accelerator to another, preservation of the beam properties is essential. Injection should be accomplished with minimum beam loss and often minimal emittance dilution. Single-turn injection, in which a single bunch of particles is injected into a single empty rf bucket, is usually straightforward. In many cases, however, to attain higher bunch currents, one may also wish to accumulate beam in a storage ring by reinjecting different beam pulses into the same rf bucket. This is called multi-turn injection. In addition to conventional schemes, there are several new or more exotic injection techniques, devised to control and improve the properties of the stored beam.


Injection Scheme Injection Envelope Beam Separation Transverse Injection Betatron Tune 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G.H. Rees: Injection. In: Proc. CERN Accelerator School, Gif-sur-Yvette, Paris, France, CERN 85–19, 1985 p. 331Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G.H. Rees: ‘Extraction’. In: Proc. CERN Accelerator School, Gif-sur-Yvette, Paris, France, CERN 85–19, 1985 p. 346 (1985)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Piwinski: IEEE Tr. NS-24(3), 1364 (1977)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    C. Gonzales, M. Morvillo, M. D’yachkov: Impedance Measurements on the LHC Dump Kicker Prototype. LHC Project Note 151 (1998)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Minty, R.H. Siemann: Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 376, 301 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    The PEP-II Design Group: PEP-II An Asymmetric B Factory. SLAC-418 (1993)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ch. Carli, S. Maury, D. Möhl: Combined Longitudinal and Transverse Multiturn Injection in a Heavy Ion Accumulator. In: Proc. of 1997 IEEE PAC, Vancouver, 1997 ( IEEE, Piscataway 1997 )Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. Baudrenghien, P. Collier: Double Batch Injection into LEP. In: Proc. of EPAC 96, Sitges, 1996 ( IOP, Bristol 1996 ) p. 415Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. Gianfelice, H. Schönauer: Strategies for Longitudinal Painting in the EHF Booster at Injection. In: Proc. of EPAC 1988, Rome, 1988 (IOP, 1989 )Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G.H. Rees: Injection and Painting. In: Proc. of the Summer Study on High Energy Physics in the 1990s, Snowmass, 1988Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    G.I. Budker, G.I. Dimov. In: Proc. Int. Conf. on High-Energy Accelerators, Dubna 1963, Conf. 114, 1963, p. 1372Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    E. Crosbie, A. Gorka, E. Parker, C. Potts, L. Ratner: IEEE Tr. NS-22(3), 1056 (1975)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C.D. Moak: IEEE Tr. NS-23(2), 1126 (1976)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.T. Free, J.S. Fraser, C.D.P. Levy: Laser Stripping of the Triumf H- Beam. In: Proc. of 1989 IEEE PAC, Chicago, 1989 ( IEEE, Piscataway 1989 ) p. 414Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    T.K. Khoe, R.J. Lari. In: Proc. Conf. on High-Energy Accelerators, Geneva, 1971, p. 98Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.T. Seeman: Injection Issues of Electron-Positron Storage Rings. In: Proc. of B factories: The State of the Art in Acclerators, Detectors and Physics, Stanford, April 6–10, 1992Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M.G. Minty, R. Brown, F.-J. Decker et al.: ‘Using a Fast-Gated Camera for Measurements of Transverse Beam Distributions and Damping Times’. In: J.A. Hinkson, G. Stover (eds.): Proc. Accelerator Instrumentation Workshop, Berkeley AIP Conf. Proc. 281, 1992, p. 158Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    M.G. Minty, W.L. Spence: Injection Envelope Matching in Storage Rings. In: Proc. of 1995 IEEE PAC, Dallas, 1995 ( IEEE, Piscataway 1995 ) p. 536Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Sands: A Beta Mismatch Parameter. SLAC internal report SLAC-AP-85 (1991)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T.O. Raubenheimer, L.Z. Rivkin, R.D. Ruth: Damping Ring Designs for a TeV Linear Collider. In: Proc. of the DFP Summer Study Snowmass’88, 1988Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    The NLC Design Group: Zeroth Order Design Report for the Next Linear Collider. SLAC-Report 474 (1996)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    F. Hinode, S. Kawabata, H. Matsumoto et al.: Accelerator Test Facility—Design and Study Report. KEK Internal Report 95–4 (1995)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    F. Bulos: Detailed Design of PEP II Injection Kickers. SLAC PEP-II/AP Note 5–92 (1992)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    B.I. Grishanov, F.V. Podgorny, J. Rümmler, V.D. Shiltsev: Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 396 (1997) 28 NIM A 396 (1997) p. 28Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    V.D. Shiltsev: Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 374 (1996) 137CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    A.I. Drozhdin, N.V. Mokhov, M. Harrison: Study of Beam Losses during Fast Extraction of 800 GeV Protons from the Tevatron. Fermilab Internal Report FN-418 (1985)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    A. Drozhdin, N. Mokhov, C. Johnstone, W. Wan, A. Garren: Scraping Beam Halo in µ+µ- Colliders. In: Proc. of the 4th International Conference on Physics Potential and Development of Muon Colliders, San Francisco, 1997Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    G.E. Fischer: Iron Dominated Magnets. Lecture at the 1985 SLAC Summer Institute. SLAC-PUB-3726 (1985)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    R. Cappi, M. Giovannozzi: Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 104801–1 (2002)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. Cappi, M. Giovannozzi: Adiabatic Capture of Charged Particles in Islands of Phase Space: A New Method for Multi-turn Extraction. In: Proc. EPAC 02, Paris, 2002 ( European Phys. Soc., Geneva 2002 ) 1250Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    G. Acquistapace, J.L. Baldy, A.E. Ball et al.: The CERN Neutrino Beam to Gran Sasso (NGS): Conceptual Technical Design, ed. by K. Elsener. CERN 98–02 (1998)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    E. Keil: Beam Separation in a Very Large Lepton Collider. CERN-SL-Note2001–017 (AP)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    The LEP2 Team: LEP Design Report — Vol. III: LEP2. CERN-AC/96–01 (LEP2) (1996)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    A.A. Asseev, M.D. Bavishev, A.N. Vasilev et al.: Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 330, 39 (1993)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    K. Elsener, G. Fidecaro, M. Gyr et al.: Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 119, 215 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    K. Elsener, G. Fidecaro, M. Gyr et al.: ‘What did we Learn from the Extraction Experiments with Bent Crystals at the CERN SPS’. In: Proc. of EPAC 98, Stockholm, 1998 ( IOP, Bristol 1999 )Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    C.T. Murphy, R.A. Carrigan, D. Chen et al.: Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 119, 231 (1996)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    S. Pape Moller: Crystal Channeling or How to Build a ‘1000 TESLA Magnet’. Ninth John Adams Memorial Lecture. CERN 94–05 (1994)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michiko G. Minty
    • 1
  • Frank Zimmermann
    • 2
  1. 1.DESY - MDEHamburgGermany
  2. 2.AB Division, ABP GroupCERNGeneva 23Switzerland

Personalised recommendations