Advertisement

Uptake and transport of lipid substrates in the heart

  • N. C. Fournier
Conference paper

Summary

Between 1955–1960 it was realized that the fatty acids circulating in the blood, after transport into the cardiac cells, then β-oxidation in the myocyte mitochondria, were the major source of energy behind the impressive hydraulic performance of the heart. Only albumin-bound fatty acids and, to a lesser extent, cholesterol ester and triglyceride fatty acids have access to the cardiac cells. Circulating phospholipid fatty acids are excluded.

From experiments with isolated perfused hearts it was concluded that fatty acid uptake by the myocardium was essentially an energy independent process. An important question still pending in the literature concerns the mechanisms of fatty acid transport through the capillary endothelium, through the cardiac cell plasma membrane and then through the intracellular compartments. The most plausible model now emerging considers that specific fatty acid-binding proteins, sequentially disposed along this cascade of barriers, might facilitate and drive the flux of fatty acids entering the cardiac cells.

Key words

Heart Fatty Acids Lipid Transport. 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Carlsten A, Hallgren B, Jagenburg R, Svanborg A, Werkö L (1961) Myocardial metabolism of glucose, lactic acid, amino-acids and fatty acids in healthy human individuals at rest and at different work loads. Scandinav J Clin Lab Invest 13: 418Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chajek-Shaul T, Friedman G, Stein O, Olivecrona T, Stein Y (1982) Binding of lipoprotein lipase to the cell surface is essential for the transmembrane transport of chylomicron cholesteryl ester. Biochim Biophys Acta 712: 200–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chajek-Shaul T, Friedman G, Halperin G, Stein O, Stein Y (1981) Uptake of chylomicron [3H] cholesteryl linoleyl ether by mesenchymal rat heart cell cultures. Biochim Biophys Acta 666: 147–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Crass III MF, Meng HC (1966) The removal and metabolism of chylomicron triglycerides by the isolated perfused rat heart: the role of a heparin-released lipase. Biochim Biophys Acta 125: 106–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    DeGrella RF, Light RJ (1980) Uptake and metabolism of fatty acids by dispersed adult rat heart myocytes. I. Kinetics of homologous fatty acids. J Biol Chem 255: 9731–9738Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    DeGrella RF, Light RJ (1980) Uptake and metabolism of fatty acids by dispersed adult rat heart myocytes. II. Inhibition by albumin and fatty acids homolugues, and the effect of temperature and metabolic reagents. J Biol Chem 255: 9739–9745Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Delcher HK, Fried M, ShippJC (1965) Metabolism of lipoprotein lipid in the isolated perfused rat heart. Biochim Biophys Acta 1016: 1018Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    DiCorleto PE, Zilversmit DB (1977) Protein-catalyzed exchange of phosphatidylcholine between sonicated liposomes and multilamellar vesicles. Biochemistry 16: 2145–2150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    DiCorleto PE, Warach JB, Zilversmit DB (1979) Purification and characterization of two phospholipid exchange proteins from bovine heart. J Biol Chem 254: 7795–7802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dole VP (1956) A relation between non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and the metabolism of glucose. J Clin Invest 35: 150–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ehnholm C, Zilversmit DB (1973) Exchange of various phospholipids and cholesterol between liposomes in presence of highly purified phospholipid exchange protein. J Biol Chem 248: 1719–1724PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Evans JR (1964) Cellular transport of long chain fatty acids. Can J Biochem 42: 955–969PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    French JE (1963) Biochemical problems of lipids. In: Frazer AC (ed) Biochimica Biophysica Acta Library, Vol 1. Elsevier Publishing, Amsterdam pp 296Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fielding CJ (1978) Metabolism of cholesterol-rich chylomicrons. Mechanism of binding and uptake of cholesterol esters by the vascular bed of the perfused heart. J Clin Invest 62: 141–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Friedman G, Chajek-Shaul T, Stein O, Olivecrona T, Stein Y (1981) The role of lipoprotein lipase in the assimilation of cholesteryl linoleyl ether by cultured cells incubated with labelled chylmonicrons. Biochim Biophys Acta 666: 156–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fournier N, Geoffroy M, DeshussesJ (1978) Purification and characterization of a long chain fatty acid-binding protein supplying the mitochondrial Li-oxidative system in the heart. Biochim Biophys Acta 533: 457–464Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fournier N, Zuker M, Williams RE, Smith ICP (1983) Self-association of the cardiac fatty acid binding protein. Influence on membrane-bound, fatty acid dependent enzymes. Biochemistry 22: 1863–1872Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fournier NC, Rahim M (1983) Self-aggregation, a new property of cardiac fatty acid-binding protein. Predictable influence on energy production in the heart. J Biol Chem 258: 2929–2933Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fournier NC, Rahim M (1985) Control of energy production in the heart. A new function for fatty acid-binding protein. Biochemistry 24: 2387–2396Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gandemer GG, Durand G, Pascal G (1983) Relative contribution of the main tissues and organs to body fatty acid synthesis in the rat. Lipids 18: 223–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gartner SL, Vahouny GV (1969) Myocardial metabolism. IV. Metabolism of free and esterified cholesterol by the perfused rat heart and homogenates. Proc. Soc Exp Biol Med 131: 994–999Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ghitescu L, Fixman A, Simionescu M, Simionescu N (1986) Specific binding sites for albumin restricted to plasmalemmal vesicles of continuous capillary endothelium: Receptor-mediated transcytocis. J Cell Biol 102: 1304–1311Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Glatz JFC, Baerwaldt CCF, Veerkamp JH, Kempen HJM (1984) Diurnal variation of cytosolic fatty acid-binding protein content and of palmitate oxidation in rat liver and heart. J. Biol Chem 259: 4295–4300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gousios, A, Felts JM, Havel RJ (1963) The metabolism of serum triglycerides and free fatty acids by the myocardium. Metabolism 12: 75–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gordon RS Jr, Cherkes A (1956) Unesterified fatty acid in human blood plasma. J Clin Invest 35: 206–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gordon RS Jr (1957) Unesterified fatty acid in human blood plasma. II. The transport function of unesterified fatty acid. J Clin Invest 36: 810–815PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Miller HI, Yum KY, Durham BC (1971) Myocardial free fatty acid in unanesthetized dogs at rest and during exercise. Am J Physiol 220: 589–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Morrisett JD, Pownall HJ, Gotto AM (1975) Bovine serum albumin. Study of the fatty acid and steroid binding sites using spin-labelled lipids. J Biol Chem 250: 24–87Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Neely JR, Rovetto MJ, Oram JF (1972) Myocardial utilization of carbohydrate and lipids. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 15: 289–329PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Opie LH (1968) Metabolism of the heart in health and disease. Part I. Am Heart J 76: 685–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Opie LH (1969) Metabolism of the heart in health and disease. Part II. Am Heart J 77: 100–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Opie LH (1969) Metabolism of the heart in health and disease. Part III. Am Heart J 77: 383–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Paris S, Samuel D, Jacques Y, Gache C, Franchi A, Ailhaud G (1978) The role of serum albumin in the uptake of fatty acids ny cultured cardiac cells from chick embryo. Eur J Biochem 83: 235–243PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Paris S, Samuel D. Romey G, Ailhaud G (1979) Uptake of fatty acids by cultured cardiac cells from chick embryo: evidence for a facilitation process withouth energy dependence. Biochemie 61: 361–367Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pedersen ME, Cohen M, Schotz MC (1983) Immunocytochemical localization of the functional fraction of lipoprotein lipase in the perfused heart. J Lipid Res 24: 512–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Samuel D, Paris S, Ailhaud G (1976) Uptake and metabolism of fatty acids and analogues by cultured cardiac cells from chick embryo. Eur J Biochem 64: 583–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Scow RD, Blanchette-Mackie EJ (1985) Why fatty acids flow in cell membranes. Prog. Lipid Res 24: 197–241Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wetzel MG, Scow Rd (1984) Lipolysis and fatty acid transport in rat heart: electron microscopic study. Am J Physiol (Cell Physiol 15 ) 246: C467 — C485Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Scheider W (1979) the rate of access to the organic ligand-binding region of serum albumin is entropy controlled. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76:2283–2287Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Spector AA (1968) The transport and utilization of free fatty acid. Ann NY Acad Sci 149: 768–783PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Stein O, Stein Y (1968) Lipid synthesis, intracellular transport and storage. III. Electron microscopic radioautographic study of the rat heart perfused with tritiated oleic acid. J Cell Biol 36: 63–77Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stein O, Halperin G, Leitersdorf E, Olivecrona T, Stein Y (1984) Lipoprotein lipase mediated uptake of non-degradable ether analogues of phosphatidylcholine and cholesteryl ester by cultured cells. Biochem Biophys Acta 795: 47–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Stender S, Zilversmit DB (1981) In vivo influx, tissue esterification and hydrolysis of free and esterified plasma cholesterol in the cholesterol-fed rabbit. Biochim Biophys Acta 663: 674–686PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Spector A (1971) Metabolism of free fatty acids. Prog Biochem Pharmacol 6: 130–176Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stremmel W, Strohmeyer G, Borchard F, Kochwa S, Berk PD (1985) Isolation and partial characterization of a fatty acid binding protein in rat liver plasma membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82: 4–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tam SP, Breckenridge WC (1984) Retention of apolipoprotein B and cholesterol by perfused heart during lipolysis of very-low-density liporprotein. Biochim Biophys Acta 793: 61–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tamboli A, Van der Maten M, O’Looney P, Vahouny GV (1983) Metabolism of fatty acid, glycerol and a monoglyceride analogue by cardiac myocytes and perfused hearts. Lipids 18: 808–813PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tamboli, A, O’Looney P, Van der Maten M, Vahouny GV (1983) Comparative metabolism of free and esterified fatty acids by the perfused rat heart and rat cardiac myocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta 750: 404–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Van der Vusse GJ, Roemen THM, Flameng W, Reneman RS (1983) Serummyocardium gradients of non-esterified fatty acids in dog, rat and man. Biochim Biophys Acta 752: 361–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Van der Vusse GJ, Roemen THM, Prinzen FW, Coumans WA, Reneman RS (1982) Uptake and tissue content of fatty acids in dog myocardium under normoxic and ischemic conditions. Circ Res 50: 538–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wirtz KWA, Zilversmit DB (1970) Partial purification of phospholipid exchange protein from beef heart. FEBS Lett 7: 44–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Willebrands AF (1964) Myocardial extraction of individual non-esterified fatty acids, esterified fatty acids and aceto-acetate in the fasting human. Clin Chim Acta 10: 435–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yokota S (1982) Immunoelectron microscopic localization of albumin in smooth and striated muscle tissues of rat. Histochemistry 74: 379–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yokota S (1983) Immunocytochemical evidence for transendothelial transport of albumin and fibrinogen in rat heart and diaphragm Biomedical Res 4 (6): 577–586Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. C. Fournier
    • 1
  1. 1.Nestlé Research DepartmentNestec Ltd.VeveySwitzerland

Personalised recommendations