Advertisement

Medical Trace Gas Detection by Means of Mid-Infrared Cavity Leak-Out Spectroscopy

  • Hannes Dahnke
  • Sandra Stry
  • Golo von Basum
Chapter

Abstract

Ambient air and the human breath both contain many different volatile organic and inorganic compounds. Most of them are present in very low concentrations. The analysis of these trace gases leads in case of ambient air to a better understanding of the atmospheric chemistry and in the case of breath tests to a deeper knowledge of the physiological processes in the human body. Amongst other sources these compounds are produced in the human organism and find their way via the blood through the lungs into the human breath. Most of the volume fractions of these trace gases are on the order of some ppb (parts per billion: 1:109) down to several ppt (parts per trillion: 1:1012). This shows the need for ultra sensitive analytical methods for the in-vivo monitoring of human breath, which helps to understand various physiological and pathophysiological processes in the human organism.

Keywords

Master Oscillator Power Amplifier Human Breath Cigarette Brand Pole Lithium Niobate Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aghdassi E and Allard JP (2000) Breath alkanes as a marker of oxidative stress in different clinical conditions, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28: 880–886Google Scholar
  2. Bachem E, Dax A, Fink T, Weidenfeller A, Schneider M, and Urban W (1993) Recent progress with the CO-overtone Av=2 laser, Appl. Phys. B. 57: 185–191Google Scholar
  3. Dahnke H, Basum Gv, Kleinermanns K, Hering P, and Mürtz M (2002) Rapid formaldehyde monitoring in ambient air by means of cavity leak-out spectroscopy, Appl. Phys. B 75: 311–316Google Scholar
  4. Dahnke H, Kleine D, Hering P, and Mürtz M ( 2001 a) Real-time monitoring of ethane in human breath using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy, Appl. Phys. B 72: 971–975Google Scholar
  5. Dahnke H, Kleine D, Urban C, Hering P, and Mürtz M (2001b) Isotopic ratio measurement of methane in ambient air using mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy, Appl. Phys. B 72: 121–125Google Scholar
  6. Engeln R, vonHelden G, Berden G, and Meijer G (1996) Phase shift cavity ring down absorption spectroscopy, Chem. Phys. Lett. 262: 105–109Google Scholar
  7. Esterbauer H (1996) Estimation of peroxidative damage. A critical review, Pathol. Biol. (Paris) 44: 25–28Google Scholar
  8. Ganser H, Frech B, Jentsch A, Mürtz M, Gmachl C, Capasso F, Sivco DL, Baillargeon JN, Hutchinson AL, Cho AY, and Urban W (2001) Investigation of the spectral width of quantum cascade laser emission near 5.2 µm by a heterodyne experiment, Opt. Commun. 197: 127–130Google Scholar
  9. Gardner HW (1989) Oxygen radical chemistry of polyunsaturated fatty acids, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 7: 65–86Google Scholar
  10. Habib MP, Clements NC, and Garewal HS (1995) Cigarette smoking and ethane exhalation in humans, Am. J. Respir. Crit Care Med. 151: 1368–1372Google Scholar
  11. HITRAN (1996) Database available at http://www.hitran.com
  12. IPCC (1995) Second assesment report: climate change 1995; available at http://www.ipcc.ch
  13. Kennet JP, Cannariato KG, Hendy IL, and Behl RJ (2000) Carbon isotopic evidence for methane hydrate instability during quaternary interstadials, Science 288: 128–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kleine D, Dahnke H, Urban W, Hering P, and Mürtz M (2000) Real-time detection of (CH4)-C-13 in ambient air by use of mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy, Opt. Lett. 25: 1606–1608Google Scholar
  15. Kleine D, Mürtz M, Lauterbach J, Dahnke H, Urban WG, Hering P, and Kleinermanns K (2001) Atmospheric trace gas analysis with cavity ring-down spectroscopy, Isr. J. Chem. 41: 111–116Google Scholar
  16. Kneepkens CM, Lepage G, and Roy CC (1994) The potential of the hydrocarbon breath test as a measure of lipid peroxidation, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 17: 127–160Google Scholar
  17. Knutson MD, Handelman GJ, and Viteri FE (2000) Methods for measuring ethane and pentane in expired air from rats and humans, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28: 514–519Google Scholar
  18. Mürtz M, Frech B, Palm P, Lotze R, and Urban W (1998) Tunable carbon monoxide overtone laser sideband system for precision spectroscopy from 2.6 to 4.1 µm, Opt. Left. 23: 58–60Google Scholar
  19. Mürtz M, Frech B, and Urban W (1999a) High-resolution cavity leak-out absorption spectroscopy in the 10 üm region, Appl. Phys. B 68: 243–249Google Scholar
  20. Mürtz M, Kayser T, Kleine D, Stry S, Hering P, and Urban W (1999b) Recent developments on cavity ring-down spectroscopy with tunable cw lasers in the mid-infrared, Proc SPIE 3758: 53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Paldus BA, Harb CC, Spence TG, Wilke B, Xie J, Harris JS, and Zare RN (1998) Cavity-locked ring-down spectroscopy, J. Appl. Phys. 83: 3991–3997Google Scholar
  22. Paldus BA, Harb CC, Spence TG, Zare RN, Gmachl C, Capasso F, Sivco DL, Baillargeon JN, Hutchinson AL, and Cho AY (2000) Cavity ringdown spectroscopy using mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers, Opt. Lett. 25: 666–668Google Scholar
  23. Popp A, Dahnke H, Orphal J, Basum Gv, Burrows JP, and Kühnemann F (2000) HASIBO- a database for high-resolution absorption cross-sections of VOCs in the mid-IRGoogle Scholar
  24. Popp A, Müller F, Kühnemann F, Schiller S, Basum Gv, Dahnke H, Hering P, and Mürtz M (2002) Ultra-sensitive mid-infrared cavity leak-out spectroscopy using a cw optical parametric oscillator, Appl. Phys. B (submitted)Google Scholar
  25. Pryor WA and Godber SS (1991) Noninvasive measures of oxidative stress status in humans, Free Radic. Biol. Med. 10: 177–184Google Scholar
  26. Richter D, Lancaster DG, and Tittel FK (2000) Development of an automated diode-laserbased multicomponent gas sensor, Appl. Opt. 39: 4444–4450Google Scholar
  27. Risby TH, Sehnert SS, Jiang L, and Burdick JF (2001) Volatile biomarkers for analysis of hepatic disorders Patent:6248078Google Scholar
  28. Romanini D, Kachanov AA, Sadeghi N, and Stoeckel F (1997) CW cavity ring down spectroscopy, Chem. Phys. Lett. 264: 316–322Google Scholar
  29. Sies H (1985) Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidantsGoogle Scholar
  30. Stry S, Hering P, and Mürtz M (2002) Portable difference-frequency laser based cavity leak-out spectrometer for trace gas analysis, Appl. Phys. B 75: 297–303Google Scholar
  31. Urban W (1995) Physics and spectroscopic applications of carbon-monoxide lasers, a re-view, Infrared Phys. Techn. 36: 465–473Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hannes Dahnke
  • Sandra Stry
  • Golo von Basum

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations