Nutrient Cycling in Tropical Forest Plantations and Secondary Rainforests: The Functional Role of Biodiversity

  • Martina A. Langi
  • D. Lamb
  • R. J. Keenan
Conference paper
Part of the Environmental Science book series (ESE)


The work was driven by the need to improve understanding of the structure and functioning of tropical forest ecosystems; and to develop more cost effective approaches to forest ecosystem restoration. The fundamental question was how different are contrasting forest types (forest plantations versus secondary rainforest) in terms of ecosystem structure and functioning? The second question was: to what extent are the ecological processes in these differing forests influenced by plant biodiversity? That is, is there any functioning redundancy in the plant diversity present in these tropical forests?


Fine Root Forest Type Nutrient Cycling Fine Root Biomass Root Length Density 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen MF (1991) The ecology of mycorrhizae. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson JM, Ingram JSI (eds) (1993) Tropical soil biology and fertility: a handbook of methods. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureau International, AberystwythGoogle Scholar
  3. Baillie IC, Ashton PS, Court MN, Anderson JAR, Fitzpatrick EA, Tinsley J (1987) Site characteristics and the distribution of tree species in mixed dipterocarp forest on Tertiary sediments in central Sarawak, Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 3: 210220Google Scholar
  4. Berish CW, Ewel JJ (1988) Root development in simple and complex tropical successional ecosystems. Plant and Soil 106: 73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Binkley D, Matson P (1983) Ion exchange resin bag method for assessing forest soil nitrogen availability. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47: 1050–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Binkley D, Vitouek P (1989) Soil nutrient availability. In: Pearcy RW (ed) Plant Physiological Ecology: field methods and instrumentation. Chapman Hall, London, pp 7596Google Scholar
  7. Brookes PC, Landman A, Pruden G, and Jenkinson DS (1985) Chloroform fumigation and the release of soil nitrogen: a rapid direst extraction method to measure microbial biomass nitrogen in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 17: 837–842.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brookes PC, Powlsan DS, Jenkinson DS (1982) Measurement of microbial biomass phosphorus in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 14: 319–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown A, Lugo AE (1992) Aboveground biomass estimates for tropical moist forests of the Brazilian Amazon Interciencia 17: 8–18Google Scholar
  10. Brown AG, Nambiar EKS, Cossalter C (1997) Plantation for the tropics. In: Nambiar EKS, Brown AG (eds) Management of soil, nutrients, and water in tropical plantation forests. ACIAR Monograph No 43Google Scholar
  11. Brown BJ, Ewel JJ (1987) Herbivory in complex and simple tropical successional systems. Ecology 68: 108–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown S (1997) Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests. A Primer. FAO-UN, RomeGoogle Scholar
  13. Cuevas E, Brown S, Lugo AE (1991) Above and belowground organic matter storage and production in a tropical pine plantation and a paired broadleaf secondary forest. Plant and Soil 135: 257–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Denslow JS, Schultz JC, Vitousek PM, Strain BR (1990) Growth responses of tropical shrubs to treefall gap environments. Ecology 71: 165–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Evans J (1992) Plantations forestry in the tropics. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  16. Ewel JJ (1999) Natural systems as a model for the design of sustainable systems of land use. Agroforestry Systems 45: 1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. FAO (2001) Global forest resources assessment 2000. Main report, FAO Forestry Paper No 140. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  18. Goosem S, Tucker N (1995) Repairing the rainforest: theory and pratice of rainforest reestablishment in North Queensland’s wet tropics. Wet tropics management authority, CairnsGoogle Scholar
  19. Harley JL, Smith SE (1983) Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Holt JA, Spain AV (1986) Some biological and chemical changes in a north Queensland soil following replacement of rainforest with Araucaria cunninghamii ( Coniferae: Araucariaceaea). Journal of Applied Ecology 23: 227–237Google Scholar
  21. Hubbell SP, Foster RB (1986) Commoness and rarity in a neotropical forest: implications for tropical tree conservation. In: Soule M (ed) Conservation biology: Science of scarcity and diversity. Sinauer, Sunderland (MA)Google Scholar
  22. Hughes S, Reynolds B (1991) Effects of clearfelling on microbial biomass phosphorus in the Oh horizon of an afforested podsol in Mid-Wales. Soil Use and Management 4: 183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Isbell RF (1994) Krasnozems: a profile. Australian Journal of Soil Research 32: 915–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jordan CF (1983) Productivity of tropical rain forest ecosystems and the implications for their use as future wood and energy sources. In: Golley FB (ed) Ecosystems of the world. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  25. Keenan R, Lamb D, Woldring O, Irvine T, Jensen R (1997) Restoration of plant biodiversity beneath tropical tree plantations in Northern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 99: 117–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nutrient Cycling in Tropical Forest Plantations and Secondary Rainforests: The FunctionalRole Kooyman R (1996) Growing rainforest: rainforest restoration and generation. Greening Australia and state forests of new South Wales, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  27. Laffan MD (1988) Soils and land use on the Atherton tableland, north Queensland. CSIRO Division of Soils, Soils and Land Use Series 61. CSIRO, Canberra.Google Scholar
  28. Lamb D (1998) Large-scale ecological restoration of degraded tropical forest lands: the potential role of timber plantations. Restoration Ecology 6: 271–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lamb D (2001) Reforestation: ways of retrieving biodiversity at degraded sites. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity 5: 291–1 to 291–12Google Scholar
  30. Langi MA (2002) Nutrient cycling in tropical plantations and secondary rainforests. Ph.D. thesis, University of Queensland (Australia)Google Scholar
  31. Lieberman D, Lieberman M, Peralta R, Hartshorn GS (1985) Mortality patterns and stand turnover rates in a wet tropical forest in Costa Rixa. Journal of Ecology 73: 915–924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lugo AE (1992) Comparison of tropical tree plantations with secondary forests of similar age. Ecological Monographs 62: 1–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Main AR (1999) How much biodiversity is enough? Agroforestry Systems 45: 23–41 McNaughton SJ ( 1993 ) Biodiversity and function of grazing ecosystems. In: Schulze EDGoogle Scholar
  34. Mooney HA (eds) Biodiversity and ecosystem function. Springer, New York Michelsen A, Lisanework N, Friis I, Holst N (1996) Comparison of understorey vegetation and soil fertility in plantations and adjacent natural forests in the Ethiopian highlands.Journal of Applied Ecology 33: 627–642Google Scholar
  35. Miyawaki A (1993) Restoration of native forest from Japan to Malaysia. In: Leith H, Lohman M (eds) Restoration of tropical forest ecosystems. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht (The Netherlands)Google Scholar
  36. Naeem S, Kawabata Z, Loreau M (1998) Transcending boundaries in biodiversity research. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13: 134–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Northcote KH (1971) A Factual key for the recognition of Australian soils, 3rd edn, Rell Technical Publication, GlensideGoogle Scholar
  38. Odum EP (1971) Fundamentals of ecology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  39. Olsen SR, Sommers LW (1982) Phosphorus. In: Page AL et al. (eds) Methods of soil analysis: chemical and microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 403–448Google Scholar
  40. Orians GH, Dirzo R, Cushman JH (1996) Impact of biodiversity on tropical forest ecosystem processes. In: Mooney HA, Cushman JH, Medina E, Sala 0E, Schulze ED (eds) Functional roles of biodiversity. John Wiley SonsGoogle Scholar
  41. Parrotta JA, Knowles OH, Wunderlie JM (1997) Development of floristic diversity in 10 year old restoration forests on a bauxite mined site in Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management 99: 21–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Silver WL, Brown S, Lugo AE (1996) Biodiversity and biogeochemical cycles. In: Orians GH, Dirzp R, Cushman JH (eds): Biodiversity and ecosystem processes in tropical forests. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  43. Sun D, Dickinson GR, Bragg AL (1995) Direct seeding of Alphitonia petrei ( Rhamnaceae) for gulley revegetation in tropical northern Australia. Forest Ecology and Management 73: 249–257Google Scholar
  44. Tucker NJ, Murphy TM (1997) The effect of ecology rehabilitation on biodiversity recruitment: some observations from the wet tropics of north Queensland. Forest Ecology and Management 99: 133–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Vance ED, Brookes PC, Jenkinson DS (1987) An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 19: 703–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Vitousek PM (1982) Nutrient cycling and nutrient use efficiency. American Naturalist 119: 553–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Vitousek PM (1984) Litterfall, nutrient cycling, and nutrient limitation in tropical forests. Ecology 65: 285–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vitousek PM, Sanford Jr RL (1986) Nutrient cycling in moist forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17: 137–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Vogt K, Asbjornsen H, Ercelawn A, Montagnini F, Valdés M (1997) Roots and mycorrhizas in plantation ecosystems. In: Nambiar EKS, Brown AG Management of soil, nutrients, and water in tropical plantation forests. ACIAR Monograph No 43Google Scholar
  50. Watanabe FS, Olsen SR (1965) Test of an ascorbic acid method for determining phosphorus in water and NaHCO3 extracts from soil. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 29: 677–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Welden CW, Hewett SW, Hubbell SP, Foster RB (1991) Sapling survival, growth, and recruitment: relationship to canopy height in a neotropical forest. Ecology 72: 35–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wright SJ (1996) Plant species diversity and ecosystem functioning in tropical forests. In: Orians GH, Dirzp R, Cushman JH (eds) Biodiversity and ecosystem processes in tropical forests. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  53. Yu ZY, Wang SH, He SY (1994) Rehabilitation of eroded tropical coastal land in Guangdong, China. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 7: 28–38Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martina A. Langi
  • D. Lamb
  • R. J. Keenan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations