Home Range, Diet and Behaviour of the Tonkean Macaque (Macaca tonkeana) in Lore Lindu National Park, Sulawesi

  • Anna R. Pombo
  • Matthias Waltert
  • S. Supraptini Mansjoer
  • Ani Mardiastuti
  • Michael Mühlenberg
Part of the Environmental Science book series (ESE)


According to Fooden (1969, 1980) there are 19 species in the genus Macaca, of which seven occur endemically on Sulawesi, an area covering less than 2% of the total generic range (Albrecht 1978 cited in Bynum et al. 1997). Although there are already several field studies on Macaca nigra, Macaca nigrescen, and Macaca maura (MacKinnon 1980, Sugardjito et al. 1989, Supriatna 1991, Kohlhaas 1993, Kinnaird and O’Brien 1995, 1996, Reed et al. 1997, Rosenbaum et al. 1998, Okamoto and Matsumura 2002), only little has been done on the behaviour and ecology of the Tonkean macaque Macaca tonkeana. The Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana) is a Central Sulawesi endemic and considered at lower risk/near threatened (Lr/nt) by IUCN categories (Hilton-Taylor 2000). Sulawesi Macaques are found in lowland and hill forests but only uncommon at elevations above 1500 m (Sarasin & Sarasin 1905, cited in Whitten, 1987). For Macaca tonkeana, the primary conservation issue at this time appears to be the ability of populations to persist in highland protected areas, since habitat encroachment, hunting and eradication as crop raiders appear to pose problems at moderate elevations (Bynum et al. 1999). The Lore Lindu National Park in Central Sulawesi is located in the centre of the species’ range and comprises generally mountainous terrain with over 90% of the park area located above 1000 m (Wirawan 1981).


Home Range Home Range Size Activity Budget Fruit Availability Feeding Tree 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna R. Pombo
  • Matthias Waltert
  • S. Supraptini Mansjoer
  • Ani Mardiastuti
  • Michael Mühlenberg

There are no affiliations available

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