Policy Options for Stabilising the Forest Frontier: A Global Perspective

  • Sven Wunder
Part of the Environmental Science book series (ESE)


The purpose of this paper is to summarise different research results about the impact of macro-level factors and “extra-sectoral” policies on tropical forest cover. Specifically, we are interested in the forest margins — i.e. the spatial transition zone between tropical forests and converted land uses. What are the policy factors that accelerate frontier expansion, and which ones tend to slow it down? The term “extra-sectoral” refers to all the things that happen outside of forests and forestry, yet nevertheless have a significant effect on forests. For instance, how do changes in international trade and a country’s balance of payment affect deforestation? What does it mean for pressures on forests that a country drastically devalues its currency? What is the role of population growth?


Real Exchange Rate Policy Option Poverty Alleviation Environmental Kuznets Curve Forest Loss 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andersen LE et al. (2000) The dynamics of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK )Google Scholar
  2. Angelsen A (1997) The poverty-environment thesis: was Brundtland wrong? Forum for Development Studies No. 1Google Scholar
  3. Angelsen A, Kaimowitz D, eds (2001) Agricultural technologies and tropical deforestation. CABI Publishing, Wallingford (UK)Google Scholar
  4. Barbier EB (2001) The economics of tropical deforestation and land use. Land Economics 77 (2): 155–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barr C (2001) Banking on sustainability: Structural adjustment and forestry reform in post-Suharto Indonesia: CIFOR, Bogor and WWF, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Bevan D et al. (1999b) The political economy of poverty, equity, and growth: Nigeria and Indonesia: A World Bank comparative study. World Bank, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  7. Borlaug N, (2002) We can feed the world: Here’s how. The Wall Street Journal, Monday, 13 May Google Scholar
  8. Bryant D et al. (1997) The last frontier forests: ecosystems and economies on the edge: what is the status of the world’s remaining large, natural forest ecosystems? Forest Frontiers Initiative. World Resources Institute, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  9. Culas R, Dutta D (2002) The underlying causes of deforestation and the environmental Kuznets curve: a cross-country analysis. University of Sydney, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  10. FAO (2000a) FRA 2000. On definitions of forest and forest change. FRA Working Paper 33. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  11. Fisher RJ (2001) Poverty alleviation and forests: experiences from Asia, Occasional Paper. RECOFTC Kasetsart University, Bangkok. Available at Google Scholar
  12. FWI/GFW (2002) The state of the forest: Indonesia. Forest Watch Indonesia, Bogor and Global Forest Watch, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  13. Gelb A with Glassbumer, B (1988) Indonesia: Windfalls in a poor rural economy. In: Gelb A, Associates (eds) Oil Windfalls: Blessings or Curse? Oxford University Press, New York, pp 197–226Google Scholar
  14. Gilmour DA (1994) Conservation and development - seeking the linkages: Paper read at International Symposium on Management of Rainforests in Asia, at University of Oslo, 23–26 MarchGoogle Scholar
  15. Grainger A (1996) An evaluation of the FAO tropical forest resource assessment, 1990. The Geographical Journal 162, 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hill H (1992) Regional development in a boom and bust petroleum economy: Indonesia since 1970. Economic Development and Cultural Change 40 (2): 351–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jayasurya S (2001) Agriculture and deforestation in tropical Asia: an analytical framework. In: Angelsen A, Kaimowitz D (eds) Agricultural technologies and tropical deforestation. CAB1, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaimowitz D, Angelsen A (1998) Economic models of tropical deforestation: A review. Center for International Forestry Research, BogorGoogle Scholar
  19. Kaimowitz D et al. (1998) Considering the impact of structural adjustment policies on forests in Bolivia, Cameroon, and Indonesia. Unasylva 49 (149): 57–64Google Scholar
  20. Kaimowitz D, and Smith J (2001) Soybean technology and loss of natural vegetation in Brazil and Bolivia. In: Angelsen A, Kaimowitz D (eds) Agricultural technologies and tropical deforestation. CABI International with CIFOR, Wallingford (UK), pp 195–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kuznets S (1955) Economic growth and income inequality. American Economic Review XLV (1):1–28Google Scholar
  22. Landell-Mills N, Porras IT (2002) Silver bullet or fools’ gold? A global review of markets for forest environmental services and their impacts on the poor, Instruments for sustainable private sector forestry series. International Institute for Environment and Development ( HED ), LondonGoogle Scholar
  23. Mainardi S (1998) An econometric analysis of factors affecting tropical and subtropical deforestation. Agrekon 37 (1): 23–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mather A, Needle CL (1998) Trends in global forest cover: issues in explanation and modelling. In: Himiyama Y, Crissman L Information bases for land use/cover change research. Proceedings of IGU-LUCC’97, BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  25. Matthews E (2001) Understanding the FRA 2000: Forest Briefing No. 1. World Resources Institute, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  26. Mertens B, Lambin E (1997) Spatial modelling of deforestation in southern Cameroon: spatial disaggregation of diverse deforestation processes. Applied Geography 17(2): 143162Google Scholar
  27. Mertens B, Lambin EF (1997) Spatial modeling of deforestation in Southern Cameroon: spatial disaggregation of diverse deforestation processes. Applied Geography 17: 14368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mertens B, Lambin EF (2000) Land-cover-change trajectories in southern Cameroon. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 90 (3): 467–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Muhamad NZ (2002) Rates of deforestation in Indonesia. An annotated bibliography: Unpublished consultancy report. CIFOR, Bogor (Indonesia )Google Scholar
  30. Ndoye O, Kaimowitz D (2000) Macro-economics, markets, and the humid forests of Cameroon, 1967–1997. Journal of Modern African Studies 38 (2): 225–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pagiola, S. et al. eds (2002) Selling forest environmental services: Market-based mechanisms for conservation and development. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  32. Reardon T, Vosti SA (1995) Links between rural poverty and the environment in develop- ing countries: asset categories and investment poverty. World Development 23 (9)Google Scholar
  33. Rudel T, Roper J (1997) The paths to rain forest destruction: cross-national patterns of tropical deforestation, 1975–1990. World Development 25 (1): 53–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rudel T, with Horowitz B (1993) Tropical deforestation: small farmers and land clearing in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  35. Rudel TK (2001) Did a Green Revolution restore the forests of the American South? In: Angelsen A, Kaimowitz D (eds) Agricultural technologies and tropical deforestation. CABI, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  36. Scherr SJ (1989) Agriculture in an export boom economy: a comparative analysis of policy and performance in Indonesia, Mexico and Nigeria. World Development 17(4): 543560Google Scholar
  37. Sunderlin WD (1993) Environment, equity and the state: a perspective through the Java Social Forestry Program. Ph.D. thesis, Graduate School Cornell UniversityGoogle Scholar
  38. Sunderlin WD, Resosudarmo IAP (1996) Rates and causes of deforestation in Indonesia: towards a resolution of the ambiguities: CIFOR Occasional Paper No. 9. Bogor, CIFORGoogle Scholar
  39. Sunderlin WD et al. (2001) The effect of economic crises on small farmers and forest cover: a comparison of Cameroon and Indonesia. In: Palo M, Uusivuori J (eds) World Forests, Society, and Environment. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 115–125Google Scholar
  40. Sunderlin WD, Wunder S (2000) The influence of mineral exports on the variability of tropical deforestation. Environmental and Development Economics 5: 309–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Reardon T, and Vosti SA (1995) Links between rural poverty and the environment in developing countries: asset categories and investment poverty. World Development 23 (9)Google Scholar
  42. Wan PG (2000) Indonesia: Trade shocks and construction booms. In: Collier P, Gunning JW (eds) Trade shocks in developing countries, Volume 2: Asia and Latin America. Oxford University Press, pp 326–354Google Scholar
  43. Winters JA (1996) Power in motion: capital mobility and the Indonesian state. Cornell University PressGoogle Scholar
  44. World Bank (1999b) World Development Report 1998/99. World Bank, Washington DC Wunder S (2000) The economics of deforestation: the example of Ecuador: Macmillan Press St. Martin’s Press, Houndmills New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Wunder S (2001a) Poverty alleviation and tropical forests–what scopes for synergies? World Development 29 (11): 1817–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wunder S (2003) Oil wealth and the fate of the forest. a comparative study of eight tropical developing countries (forthcoming). Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sven Wunder

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations