Anästhetika

  • Franz Frei
  • Christer Jonmarker
  • Olof Werner

Zusammenfassung

Die meisten Medikamente haben einen verlängerten Effekt bei Neugeborenen. Im Alter von einigen Monaten ist aber bei gesunden Kindern sowohl die Nieren- als auch die Leberfunktion ausgereift und ältere Säuglinge und Vorschulkinder haben meistens eine schnellere Medikamentenmetabolisierung und -ausschei-dung als Erwachsene (Tabelle 6.1).

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. Bevan JC, Donati F, Bevan DR (1986) Prolonged infusion of suxamethonium in infants and children. Br J Anaesth 58: 839–843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borgeat A, Wilder-Smith OHG, Suter PM (1994) The nonhypnotic therapeutic applications of propofol. Anesthesiology 80: 642–656PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brandom BW, Brandom RB, Cook DR (1983) Uptake and distribution of halothane in infants: In vivo measurements and computer simulations. Anesth Analg 62: 404–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cameron CB, Robinson S, Gregory GA (1984) The minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in children. Anesth Analg 63: 418–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Doyle E, Freeman J, Im NT et al. (1993) An evaluation of a new self-adhesive patch preparation of amethocaine for topical anesthesia prior to venous cannulation in children. Anaesthesia 48: 1050–1052PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gajraj NM, Pennant JH, Watcha MF (1994) Eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream. Anesth Analg 78: 574–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Gauntlett IS, Fisher DM, Hertzka RE et al. (1988) Pharmakokinetics of fentanyl in neonatal humans and lambs: effect of age. Anesthesiology 69: 683–687PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Goudsouzian NG (1991) Neuromuscular blocking agents in children. Paediatr Anaesth 1: 75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Goudsouzian NG, Shorten G (1992) Myoneural blocking agents in infants: a review. Paediatr Anaesth 2: 3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gregory GA, Eger EI, Munson ES (1969) The relationship between age and halothane requirement in man. Anesthesiology 30: 488–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grundmann U, Ismaily AJ, Kleinschmidt S et al. (1991) Vergleichende Untersuchungen von Atracurium und Vecuronium für mittellang dauernde operative Eingriffe bei Säuglingen und Kleinkindern. Anaesth Intensivther Not-fallmed 26: 25–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hannallah RS, Baker SB, Casey W et al. (1991) Propofol: effective dose and induction characteristics in unpremedicated children. Anesthesiology 74: 217–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hertzka RE, Gauntlett IS, Fisher DM et al. (1989) Fentanyl-induced ventilatory depression: effects of age. Anesthesiology 70: 213–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Karl HW, Swedlow DB, Lee KW et al. (1983) Epinephrine-halothane interactions in children. Anesthesiology 58: 142–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. LeDez KM, Lerman J (1987) The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in preterm neonates. Anesthesiology 67: 301–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lerman J (1992) Pharmacology of inhalational anaesthetics in infants and children. Paediatr Anaesth 2: 191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lerman J, Robinson S, Willis MM et al. (1983) Anesthetic requirement for halothane in young children 0–1 months and 1–6 months of age. Anesthesiology 59: 421–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lerman J, Gregory GA, Willis MM et al. (1984) Age and solubility of volatile anesthetics in blood. Anesthesiology 61: 139–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lerman J, Sikich N, Kleinman S, Yentis S (1994) The pharmacology of sevoflurane in infants and children. Anesthesieology 80: 814–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Levine MF, Spahr-Schopfer IA, Hartley E et al (1993) Oral midazolam premedication in children: The minimum time interval for separation from parents. Can J Anaesth 40: 8–729Google Scholar
  21. Lynn AM, Nespeca MK, Opheim KE et al (1993) Respiratory effects of intravenous morphine infusions in neonates, infants and children after cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 77: 695–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Murray D, Vandewalker G, Matherne P et al. (1987) Pulsed doppler and two-dimensional echocardiography: comparison of halothane and isoflurane on cardiac function in infants and small children. Anesthesiology 67: 211–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nilsson A, Engberg G, Henneberg S et al. (1990) Inverse relationship between age-dependent erythrocyte activity of methaemoglobinreductase and prilocain induced methaemoglobinemia during infancy. Br J Anaesth 64: 72–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Palmisano BW, Setlock MA, Brown MP et al. (1991) Dose response for atropine and heart rate in infants and children anesthetized with halothane and nitrous oxide. Anesthesiology 75: 238–242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Parke TJ, Stevens JE, Rice ASC et al. (1992) Metabolic acidosis and fatal myocardial failure after propofol infusion in children: five case reports. Br Med J 305: 613–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Piotrowski R, Petrow N (1990) Narkoseeinleitung bei Kindern: Propofol im Vergleich zu Thiopental nach der Prämedikation mit Midazolam. Anaesthesist 39: 398–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Saint-Maurice C, Meistelman C, Rey E et al. (1986) The pharmacokinetics of rectal midazolam for premedication in children. Anesthesiology 65: 536–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Salanitre E, Rackow H (1969) The pulmonary exchange of nitrous oxide and halothane in infants and children. Anesthesiology 30: 388–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schulte-Sasse U, Eberlein HJ, Schmucker I et al. (1993) Sollte die Verwendung von Succinylcholin in der Kinderanästhesie neu überdacht werden? Anästhesiol Reanim 18: 13–19Google Scholar
  30. Stevens WC, Dolan WM, Gibbons RT et al. (1975) Minimum alveolar concentrations (MAC) of isoflurane with and without nitrous oxide in patients of various ages. Anesthesiology 42: 197–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Westrin P, Jonmarker C, Werner O (1989) Thiopental requirements for induction of anesthesia in neonates and in infants one to six months of age. Anesthesiology 71: 344–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Westrin P (1992) Methohexital dissolved in lipid emulsion for intravenous induction of anesthesia in infants and children. Anesthesiology 76: 917–921PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zwass MS, Fisher DM, Welborn LG et al. (1992) Induction and maintenance characteristics of anesthesia with desflurane and nitrous oxide in infants and children. Anesthesiology 76: 373–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franz Frei
    • 1
  • Christer Jonmarker
    • 2
  • Olof Werner
    • 2
  1. 1.Departement AnästhesieUniversitätskliniken Kinderspital BaselBaselSchweiz
  2. 2.Departement AnästhesieUniversitätsspital LundLundSchweden

Personalised recommendations