Microscopic Treatment of Surface Phenomena

  • Klaus Christmann
Part of the Topics in Physical Chemistry book series (TOPPHYSCHEM, volume 1)

Abstract

When dealing with surface — gas interaction we again recall that the complete thermodynamic system consists, in the simplest case, of three phases, namely, the solid (bulk) phase of the substrate (for example, a metal or alloy crystal), the gas phase (containing one or more individual gases), and a two-dimensional interface at the boundary: gas — solid. We have, in the preceding chapter, stated that with chemically sufficiently active gases and/or at low enough temperatures this boundary face is enriched in one or more constituents of the gas phase, a process which we have called adsorption. We have also seen that well-defined thermodynamic relationships hold for the various phase equilibria. The knowledge of heats and entropies of adsorption can provide some insight in the microscopic structure of the adsorption systems, but much more powerful in this respect is the microscopic approach, which we shall pursue in this chapter. In the first part, we shall describe some of the physical properties of the phases involved, whereby, in the beginning, the clean substrate phase and thereafter the adsorbate phase deserve the greatest attention. For the sake of brevity, we shall not expand too much on the derivation of the fundamental physical laws and relations which can be found in the respective textbooks; instead, we would like to develop a basic understanding of how the macroscopic properties can be deduced from the microscopic (atomistic) behavior of matter.

Keywords

Entropy Nickel Anisotropy Enthalpy Benzene 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus Christmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Physikalische und Theoretische ChemieFreien Universität BerlinBerlin 33Germany

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