Advertisement

Integrated Pest Management for Insect Pests of Cotton in Less Developed Countries

  • D. Russell
Chapter

Abstract

Small-scale farm enterprises in less developed countries (LDCs) now account for three quarters of the world cotton production of around 21 million tonnes of lint grown on 31 million ha (ICAC 2002a). Sixty-three of the world’s 69 significant producer countries are LDCs; 4 in central America, 8 in South America, 3 in North Africa, 12 in West Africa, 12 in eastern and southern Africa, 7 in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), 11 in Asia, 6 in the Middle East. The largest producers are China (25% of the world crop); India (13%) and Pakistan (9%). The largest crop area is in India, with ca 8 5 million ha, or over a quarter of the global cotton area. More importantly, the average farm size in LDCs is very small (<1 ha of cotton) and the number of farmers involved is enormous, perhaps around 28 million, although accurate estimates are not available. Even when we think of newer pest management technologies, such as the use of transgenic cotton carrying the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin, around 70% of the world’s Bt cotton growers are in developing countries, particularly China.

Keywords

Integrate Pest Management Pyrethroid Resistance Boll Weevil Integrate Pest Management Programme Farmer Field School 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anon (2003a) Factors affecting adoption of Bt cotton. International Cotton Advisory Committee, Washington, USA, ICAC Recorder 21 (2): 7–11Google Scholar
  2. Anon (2003b) VIP cotton–a new type of transgenic cotton., International Cotton Advisory Committee, Washington, USA, ICAC Recorder 21 (2): 3–7Google Scholar
  3. Armes NJ, Jadhav DR, de Souza KR (1996) A survey of insecticide resistance in Helicoverpa armigera in the Indian sub-continent. Bull Entomol Res 86: 499–514Google Scholar
  4. Bennett AL (2000) Performance of genetically transformed Bt cotton in South Africa and implications for emerging small-scale farmers. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, 6–12 Sept, 1998, Athens, Greece, pp 1179–1181Google Scholar
  5. Bennett A (2001) Efforts to expand genetically improved cotton in Africa. Proceedings of the technical seminar at the 60th plenary meeting of ICAC. International Cotton Advisory Committee, Washington, USA, pp 31–34Google Scholar
  6. Burgess MW (2001) Key success factors in integrated crop management systems in Africa. Proceedings of the technical seminar at the 60th plenary meeting of ICAC. International Cotton Advisory Committee, Washington, USA, pp 3–5Google Scholar
  7. Campion DG (1983) Pheromones for the control of insect pests in Mediterranean countries. Crop Prot 2: 3–16Google Scholar
  8. Chamberlain DJ, Critchley BR, Campion DG, Attique MR, Rafique M, Arif MI (1992) Use of multi-component pheromone formulations for the control of cotton bollworms ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae and Gelechiidae) in Pakistan. Bull Entomol Res 82: 449–458Google Scholar
  9. Chamberlain DJ, Brown NJ, Jones OT, Casagrande E (2000) Field evaluation of a slow release pheromone formulation to control the American bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Pakistan. Bull Entomol Res 90: 183–190Google Scholar
  10. Clausen C (ed) (1978) Introduced parasites and predators of arthropod pests and weeds - a world review. Agriculture handbook 480. Agric Res Ser, USDA, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  11. Deguine J-P, Fok M, Vaissayre M, Crétenet M, Rollin D, Marnotte P, Gourlot JP, Lacape M, Chair H, Lacon J (2000) The evolution of research and development work performed by CIRAD in partnership with small cotton growers in French-speaking West Africa. Proceedings Technical Seminar of 59th plenary meeting of ICAC. International Cotton Advisory Committee, Washington, USA, pp 25–35Google Scholar
  12. Dhaliwal GS, Arora R, Heinrichs EA (1998) Insect pest management: from traditional to sustainable approach. In: Dhaliwal GS, Heinrichs EA (eds) Critical issues in insect pest management. Commonwealth Publishers, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  13. Dillon ML (2003) Trap crops for managing Helicoverpa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Australian cotton farming systems. Proceedings of the World Cotton Research Conference-3, 9–13 March, Cape Town, S Africa (in press)Google Scholar
  14. Du Toit CLN (2000) Integrated pest management on cotton in South Africa. Proceedings World Cotton Conference-2, 6–12 Sept 1998, Athens, Greece, pp 814–817Google Scholar
  15. Elbert A, Nauen R, Leicht W (1998) Imidacloprid, a novel chloronicotinyl insecticide–biological activity and agricultural importance. In: Ishaaya I, Degheele D (eds) Insecticides with novel modes of action: mechanisms and application. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 50–73Google Scholar
  16. El Zik, KM, Thaxton PM (1998) Genetic improvement for resistance to pests and stresses in cotton. In: Frisbie F, El-Zik KL, Wilson LT (eds) Integrated pest management systems and cotton production. Wiley Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Entwhistle PE (1998) A world survey of virus control of insect pests. In: Hunter-Fujita FR, Entwhistle PF, Evans HF, Crook NE (eds) Insect viruses and pest management. Wiley, Chichester, pp 189–200Google Scholar
  18. Eveleens KG (2000) The FAO/EU cotton IPM programme in Asia: problems and prospects. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference 2000: pests and diseases, British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, Surrey, pp 185–192Google Scholar
  19. Eveleigh RR, Marshall JP, Wilson LJ (2000) An evaluation of seed treatments against thrips in southern Australia. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, 6–12 Sept 1998, Athens, Greece, pp 869–873Google Scholar
  20. Fillman D, Sterling WL (1983) Killing power of the red imported fire ant (Hym.: Formicidae): a key predator of the boll weevil (Col.: Curculionidae ). Entomophaga 28: 339–344Google Scholar
  21. Fitt GP, Mares CL, Llewellyn DJ (1994) Field evaluation and potential ecological impact of transgenic cottons (Gossypium hirsutum) in Australia. Biocont Sci Tech 4: 535–548Google Scholar
  22. Follin JC, Déat M (1999) Le rôle des facteur techniques dans l’accroissement des rendements en culture cotonnière. Coton et Développement. Hors serie. IRTC-CIRAD, Montpellier, France, Sept 1999, pp 14–23Google Scholar
  23. Gallo I (2000) Parasitism and other mortality in the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Paraguay. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, Athens, Greece, 6–12 Sept 1998, pp 666–667Google Scholar
  24. Gan-Mor S, Grinstein A, Riven Y, Beres H, Kletter E, Spenser J, Forer G, Tzvieli E, Zur I (2000a) A new technology for improved pesticide coverage on the cotton canopy. Part I: sprayer development. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, Athens, Greece, 6–12 Sept 1998, pp 700–703Google Scholar
  25. Gan-Mor S, Grinstein A, Riven Y, Beres H, Kletter E, Spenser J, Forer G, Tzvieli E, Zur I (2000b) A new technology for improved pesticide coverage on the cotton canopy. Part II: field efficacy. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, Athens, Greece, 6–12 Sept 1998, pp 704–708Google Scholar
  26. Gonzalez D, Wilson LT (1982) A food web approach to economic thresholds: a sequence of pest/ predaceous arthropods on Californian cotton. Entomophaga 27: 31–43Google Scholar
  27. Gozé E, Deguine JP (2000) Spatial and probability distribution of Aphis gossypii infestation in West Africa: application to non-random field sampling. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, Athens, Greece, 6–12 Sept 1989, pp 885–886Google Scholar
  28. Gozé E, Nibouche S, Deguine JP (2000) Bollworm sampling for action thresholds in sub-Saharan Africa: spatial and probability distribution. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, Athens, Greece, 6–12 Sept 1989, pp 883–884Google Scholar
  29. Greathead DJ (1994) Biological control. In: Matthews GA, Tunstall JP (eds) Insect pests of cotton. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  30. Greenplate J, Duck NB, Pershing JC, Purcell JP (1995) Cholesterol oxidase–an oostatic and larvicidal agent active against the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. Entomol Exp Appl 74: 253–258Google Scholar
  31. Gregg PC, Stanley JN, Johnson ML, Yee M (2000) Predatory arthropods in Australian cotton fields. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, 6–12 Sept 1989, Athens, Greece pp 780–784Google Scholar
  32. Gunning RV, Balfe ME (2003) Spinosad resistance in Australian Helicoverpa armigera. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-3, 9–13 March, Cape Town, S Africa (in press)Google Scholar
  33. Hallikeri SS, Halemani HL (2003) Studies on organic cotton production under rainfed conditions. Proceedings of the World Cotton Research Conference-3, 9–13 March Cape Town, S Africa (in press)Google Scholar
  34. Hartstack AW, Sterling WL, Dean DA (1991) The Texas cotton insect model - TEXCIM ver 4.1 Texas Agric Exp Station Misc Pub MP-1646. College Station, TX, USAGoogle Scholar
  35. Hegde M, Kulkarni KA (2003) Impact of intercrops on conservation of Chrysoperla carnea and other natural enemies in the cotton ecosystem. Proceedings of the World Cotton Research Conference-3 9–13 March Cape Town, S Africa (in press)Google Scholar
  36. Hillocks RJ (2000) Cotton disease control: contrasting approaches. Proceedings of the World Cotton Research Conference-2, Athens, Greece, Sept 6–12 1998, pp 69–74Google Scholar
  37. Horowitz AR, Forer G, Ishaaya I (2000) The Israel cotton IPM-IRM strategy–retrospect and prospect. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, Athens, Greece, Sept 6–12 1998, pp 793–796Google Scholar
  38. Huang J, Hu R, Pray C, Qiao F, Rozelle S (2003) Biotechnology as an alternative to chemical pesticides: a case study of Bt cotton in China. Agric Econ 29 (1): 55–67Google Scholar
  39. Hussein SM, Abdel Aziz MA, Abdel-Alim AA, Mohamed AA (2003) Quantitative and qualitative effects of certain pesticides on soil arthropod fauna in cotton ecosystems. Proceedings of the World Cotton Research Conference-3, 9–13 March, Cape Town, S Africa (in press)Google Scholar
  40. ICAC (2002a) Cotton production practices. International Cotton Advisory Committee, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  41. ICAC (2002b) Cotton: world statistics, September 2002. International Cotton Advisory Committee, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  42. ICAC-CCRI (1996) Proceedings ICAC-CCRI regional consultation on insecticide resistance management in cotton. 28 June - 1 July 1999, Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  43. ICRISAT (1986) Annual Report International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics 1985. ICRISAT, Patancheru, India, p 194Google Scholar
  44. Ishaaya I, Degheele D (eds) (1998) Insecticides with novel modes of action: mechanisms and application. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Ishaaya I, Horowitz AR (1998) Insecticides with novel modes of action–an overview. In: Ishaaya I, Degheele D (eds) Insecticides with novel modes of action: mechanisms and application. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1–24Google Scholar
  46. Ismael Y, Bennett R, Morne S (2001) Biotechnology in Africa: the adoption and economic impacts of Bt cotton in the Makathini flats, Republic of South Africa. Proceedings of the Africa Bio Conference: Biotechnology Conference for sub-Saharan Africa, 26–27 Sept 2001, Johannesburg, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  47. Jadhav DR, Russell DA, Armes NJ, Kranthi KR (2000) Impact of sorghum on natural parasitism of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) by Trichogramma chilonis Ishii in cotton in southern India. AgrEast 2: 6–16Google Scholar
  48. Jallas E, Sequeira R, Martin P, Crétenet M, Turner S, McKinion J (1999) Virtual Cottons, the firstborn of the next generation of simulation model. In: Dugger CP, Richter DA (eds) Proceedings of the 1999 Beltwide Cotton Production and Research Conferences, Orlando, January 3–7 1999. National Cotton Council, Memphis, Tennessee, pp 393–396Google Scholar
  49. James C (2003) Global status of commercialised transgenic crops: 2002. International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications Brief No 27, ISAAA, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  50. Jarvis R (2001) Impact of seed quality and crop management practices on fibre quality. Proceedings of the technical seminar at the 60th plenary meeting of ICAC. International Cotton Advisory Committee, Washington, pp 12–16Google Scholar
  51. Jayraj S, Rabindra RJ, Narayanan K, Sunderarajan K, Balagurunathan R (1981) Effectiveness of the nuclear polyhedrosis virus against field populations of the tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura, on cotton. Andhra Agric J 27: 26–29Google Scholar
  52. Jones KA, Ketunuti U, Grzywacz D (1994) Production and use of NPV to control Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura in Thailand. Abstracts VIth International Colloquium on invertebrate pathology and microbial control. 28 Aug-2 Sept 1994, Society for Invertebrate Pathology, Montpellier, France, p 177Google Scholar
  53. Jones KA, Zelanzy B, Ketunute U, Cherry A, Grzywacz D (1998) SE Asia and the western Pacific. In: Hunter-Fujita, Entwhistle PF, Evans HF, Crook NE (eds) Insect viruses and pest management. Wiley, Chichester, pp 244–257Google Scholar
  54. Jones KA, Verkerk RHJ, Asanov K (2000) Prospects for the integration of non-chemical and chemical pest management in cotton. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference 2000: Pests and Diseases. British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, Surrey, pp 199–204Google Scholar
  55. Joubert GD, Venter MJ, Theron GC, Swanepol A, Eulitz EG, Schroder HF, Macaskill P (2001) South African experience with Bt cotton. Proceedings of the technical seminar at the 60th plenary meeting of ICAC. International Cotton Advisory Committee, Washington, pp 28–31Google Scholar
  56. Kabissa JCB, Myaka FA (2000) Sustainable cotton production systems: prospects for smallholders in developing countries. Proceedings Technical Seminar of the 59th Plenary Meeting of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, ICAC, Washington, USA, pp 21–24Google Scholar
  57. Kabissa JCB, Heemskerk W, Temu EE, Anania J (2000) Effect of structural adjustment programmes on pest control in Tanzania: case study of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) on cotton. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, Athens, Greece, 6–12 Sept 1998, pp 818–822Google Scholar
  58. Kairon MS (2000) Recent advances in cotton production for efficient insect pest management. Proceedings World Cotton Conference-2, Athens, Greece, 6–12 Sept 1998, pp 823–828Google Scholar
  59. Kairon MS, Kranthi KR (1998) Non-insecticidal methods in cotton pest management–a critical re-appraisal. Proceedings of the workshop, Non-pesticidal management of cotton and pigeonpea pests, 10–11 April 1998, Hyderabad, India. Centre for World Solidarity and National Institute for Agricultural Extension Management, Hyderabad, India, pp 33–45Google Scholar
  60. Ketunuti U, Prathomrut S (1989) Cotton bollworm larva control by Heliothis armigera nuclear polyhedrosis virus. Abstracts of the First Asia-Pacific Conference of Entomology, 8–13 Nov 1898, Chang Mai, Thailand, Bangkok. The Secretariat APCE, p 16Google Scholar
  61. King EG, Coleman RJ, Phillips JR, Dickerson WA (1985) Heliothis spp. and selected natural enemy populations in cotton: a comparison of three insect control programs in Arkansas (1981–82) and North Carolina (1983). Southwest Entomol Suppl 8: 71–98Google Scholar
  62. Kranthi KR, Jadhav DR, Wanjari R, Kranthi S, Russell DA (2001a) Pyrethroid resistance and mechanisms in field strains of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). J Econ Entomol 94: 253–263Google Scholar
  63. Kranthi KR, Jadhav DR, Wanjari RR, Ali SS, Russell DA (2001b) Carbamate and organophosphate resistance in cotton pests in India, 1995–1999. Bull Entomol Res 91: 37–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kranthi KR, Russell DA, Wanjari R, Manoj K, Munje S, Lavhe N, Armes N (2001c) In-season changes in resistance to insecticides in Helicoverpa armigera ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in India. J Econ Entomol 95: 135–142Google Scholar
  65. Kranthi KR, Jadhav DR, Wanjari RR, Ali SS, Russell DA (2002) Insecticide resistance in five major pests of cotton in India. Crop Prot 21: 449–460Google Scholar
  66. Kunjeku E, Jones KA, Moawad GM (1998) Africa, the Near and Middle East. In: Hunter-Fujita FR, Entwhistle PE, Evans HF, Crook NE (eds) Insect viruses and pest management. Wiley, Chichester, pp 280–302Google Scholar
  67. Li G, Wu K, Gould F, Feng H, He Y, Guo Y (2003) Bt toxin resistance gene frequencies in Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) populations from the Yellow River cotton farming region of China. Entomol Exp Appl (in press)Google Scholar
  68. Liang W, Mensah RK (2003) Improving efficacy of biopesticides with petroleum spray oils against Helicoverpa spp. in cotton. Proceedings of the World Cotton Research Conference-3, 9–13 March 2003, Cape Town, S Africa (in press)Google Scholar
  69. Lin R, Liang H, Zhang R, Tian C, Ma Y (2003) Impact of alfalfa/cotton intercropping and management on some aphid predators in China. J Appl Entomol 127: 33–36Google Scholar
  70. Luttrel RG, Fitt GP, Ramalho FS, Sugonyaev ES (1994) Cotton pest management: Part 1. A worldwide perspective. Annu Rev Entomol 39: 527–542Google Scholar
  71. Mamogobo MD, Botha MS, Mtsweni PB (2003) Alternative bollworm control strategies for the small-scale farmer. Proceedings of the World Cotton Research Conference-3, 9–13 March, Cape Town, S Africa (in press)Google Scholar
  72. Mangan J, Mangan MS (1998) A comparison of two IPM training strategies in China: the importance of concepts of the rice ecosystem for sustainable insect pest management. Agric Human Val 15: 209–221Google Scholar
  73. Martin T, Chandre F, Ochou OG, Vassayre M, Fournier D (2002) Pyrethroid resistance mechanisms in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from West Africa. Pestic Bioch Physiol 74: 17–26Google Scholar
  74. Mascarenhas VJ, Shotkoski F, Boykin R (2003) Field performance of VIP cotton against various lepidopterous cotton pests in the US. Proceedings of the 2003 Beltwide Cotton Conferences. National Cotton Council of American, Nashville, Tennessee (in press)Google Scholar
  75. Matthews GA (1989) Cotton insect pests and their management. Longman, Harlow, Essex, UK Matthews GA, Tunstall JP (1968) Scouting for pests and the timing of spray applications. Cotton Growers Rev 45: 115–127Google Scholar
  76. Matthews GA, Tunstall JP (eds) 1994 Insect pests of cotton. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  77. Mazza SM, Contreras GB, Simonella MA, Polak GMA, Schroeder JA, Tannure CJ, Royo OM (2000) Sampling techniques for the evaluation of Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) infestation in cotton Gosypium hirsutum (L.). Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, Athens, Greece, 6–12 Sept 1998, pp 909–913Google Scholar
  78. McCaffery AR (1999) Resistance to insecticides in heliothine lepidoptera: a global view. In: Dehnolm I, Pickett JA, Devonshire AL (eds) Insecticide resistance: from mechanisms to management. GABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 59–75Google Scholar
  79. McCaffery AR, King ABS, Walker AJ, El-Nayir H (1989) Resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in the bollworm Heliothis armigera from Andhra Pradesh, India. Pestic Sci 27: 65–76Google Scholar
  80. Mead-Briggs M, Bakker FM, Grove AJ, Primiani (1996) Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests and Diseases British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, Surrey, vol 1, pp 307–314Google Scholar
  81. Michaelides P, Irving SN (2000) Cotton insect pest control with indoxacarb: a novel insecticide. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, Athens, Greece 6–12 Sept 1998, pp 773–776.Google Scholar
  82. Moawad GM, Gerling D (2000) Dynamics of whiteflies and their enemies in cotton fields: implications for pest management. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, 6–12 Sept 1998, Athens, Greece, pp 735–738Google Scholar
  83. Munir B, Abdelrahman AA, Mohamed AH, Stam PA (1992) Introduction of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley against Heliothis armigera (Hb.) in the Sudan. Proceeding 3rd International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics, Genting Highlands, 20–23 March 1990, vol 5. Malaysian Plant Protection Society, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, pp 70–73Google Scholar
  84. Nibouche S, Beyo J, Brévault T, Crétenet M, Gozé E, Jallas, Martin P, Moussa AA (2002) CotonsSinbad: a tool for establishing cotton bollworm economic damage thresholds. In: Villalobos FJ, Testi L (eds) VII Congress of the European Society for Agronomy, Cordoba, July 15–18, 2002. Junta de Andalucia, Sevilla, Spain, pp 307–308Google Scholar
  85. Nibouche S, Beyo J, Brévault T, Crétenet M, Gozé E, Jallas E, Martin P, Moussa AA (2003) Cotton bollworm economic injury levels based on crop model predictions: another use of the ‘Cotons’ model. Proc World Cotton Research Conference-3, Cape Town 10–14 March 2003, South Africa (in press)Google Scholar
  86. Niv A (2000) Use of pheromones for pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella, Saunders) mating disruption in Israel. Proceedings of the World Cotton Research Conference-2, vol 1, 6–12 Sept 1998, Athens, Greece, pp 739–742Google Scholar
  87. NRI (1992) Integrated pest management in developing countries: experience and prospects. Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UKGoogle Scholar
  88. Ochou OG, Martin T (2003) Activity spectrum of spinosad and indoxacarb: rationale for an innovative pyrethroid resistance management strategy in East Africa. Resistant Pest Manage 12 (2): 75–81Google Scholar
  89. Ochou OG, Martin T, Hala NF (2000) Cotton insect pest problems and management strategies in Côte d’Ivoire, W. Africa. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, 6–12 Sept, Athens, Greece 1998, pp 833–837Google Scholar
  90. Olsen KM, Mahon RJ, Daly JC, Finnegan EJ, Holt H (2003) Changes in the efficacy of Bt cotton against Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner): interpretation of assays. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-3, Cape Town, South Africa, 9–13 March 2003 (in press)Google Scholar
  91. Patil BV, Bheemanna M (2000) Integrated pest management strategy for irrigated cotton. Pro- ceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, Athens Greece, 6–12 Sept. 1998, pp 801–805Google Scholar
  92. Patil SB, Udikeri, SS, Nadaf AM, Khadi BM (2003) Management of pink bollworm through the use of the pheromone ‘Sirene PBW’ in cotton. Proceedings of the World Cotton Research Conference-3, Cape Town, South Africa, 9–13 March 2003 (in press)Google Scholar
  93. Plato TA, Plato JC, Plato JS, Plato SE (2000) The use of attract and control technologies in the control, prevention, suppression and eradication of the cotton boll weevil. Abstract 0611, Brazilian Entomological Society Conference, Foz d’Iguassu, August 2002. Embrapa, Londrina, Parana, Brazil, p 155Google Scholar
  94. Polak MGA, Conteras GB, Maranich MJ, Royo OM, Simonella MA, Poisson JAF (2000) Mass rearing and use of a new species of Chrysoperla (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in cotton crops in Argentina. Proceedings of the World Cotton Research Conference-2, Sept 6–12, 1998, Athens, Greece, pp 672–674Google Scholar
  95. Pontius J, Dilts R., Bartlett A (2002) From farmer field schools to community IPM, ten years of IPM training in Asia. FAO Community IPM programme, Jakarta, IndonesiaGoogle Scholar
  96. Powell KA, Rhodes DJ (1994) Strategies for the progression of biological fungicides into field evaluation. In: Hewett HG, Caseley J, Copping LG, Grayson BT, Dyson P (eds) 1994 BCPC Monograph 59: comparing glasshouse and field pesticide performance II. British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, UK, pp 307–315Google Scholar
  97. Pray CE, Huang J, Hu R, Rozelle S (2002) Five years of Bt cotton in China–the benefits continue. Plant J 31: 423–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Rajguru SN, Stewart J McD, Wilkins TN (1998) Assessment of resistance of cotton transformed with lectin genes to tobacco budworm. In: Oosterhuis DM (ed) Proc 1998 cotton research meeting and summaries of research in progress. Special report 1998. University of Arkansas, Agricultural Experimental Station, pp 95–98Google Scholar
  99. Ramalho FS (1994) Part 4–a Brazilian perspective. In: Luttrell R, Fitt G, Ramalho FS, Sugongaev ES (eds) Cotton pest management Annu Rev Entomol 39: 563–578Google Scholar
  100. Rameis J, Shanower TG (1996) Arthropod natural enemies of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in India. Biocont Sci Tech 6: 481–508Google Scholar
  101. Ruchijat E, Sukmaraganda T (1992) National integrated pest management in Indonesia; its success and challenges. In: Ooi PAC, Lim GS, Ho TH, Manalo PL, Waage J (eds) International pest management in the Asia-Pacific region. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 329–347Google Scholar
  102. Russell DA (2003) Farmer experience with Bt cotton in China. Cotton Outlook Feb: 44–49Google Scholar
  103. Russell DA, Radwan SM (1993) Modelling pink bollworm mating disruption in Egyptian cotton. In: McVeigh LJ, Hall DR, Beevor PS (eds) Proceedings of the OILB meeting on pheromone technology in Europe and the developing countries. 10–14 May 1993, Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK pp 268–275Google Scholar
  104. Russell DA, Hillocks RJ (1996) Impact of short-season cotton systems on the control of insect pests and diseases. Proceeding of the Technical Seminar of the 55th plenary meeting of the ICAC, Oct 1991, Tashkent, Uzbekistan. International Cotton Advisory Committee, Washington, pp 21–25Google Scholar
  105. Russell DA, Radwan S, Invine S, Jones K, Downham M (1993) Experimental assessment of the impact of defoliation by Spodoptera littoralis on the growth and yield of Giza ‘75 cotton in Egypt. Crop Prot 12: 303–309Google Scholar
  106. Russell DA, El-Deeb YA, Mahoud HM (1995) Modelling pheromone use for pink bollworm control in Egypt. Proceedings of the World Cotton Research Conference-1, Feb 14–17 1994, Brisbane, Australia, pp 475–479Google Scholar
  107. Russell DA, Kranthi KR, Surulivelu T, Jadhav DR, Regupathy A, Singh J (2000a) Developing and implementing insecticide resistance management practices in cotton ICM programmes in India. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference 2000: pests and diseases. British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, Surrey, UK, pp 205–211Google Scholar
  108. Russell DA, Singh J, Jadhav DR, Surulivelu T, Regupathy A, Kranthi KR (2000b) Management of insecticide resistant Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in cotton in India. Proceedings of the World Cotton Research Conference-2, 6–12 Sept 1998, Athens, Greece, pp 679–688Google Scholar
  109. Russell DA, Kranthi KR, Mayee CD, Banarjee SK, Raj S (2003) Area-wide management of insecticide resistant pests of cotton in India. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-3, Cape Town, South Africa 9–14 March 2003 (in press)Google Scholar
  110. Sagenmuller A, Hewson RT (2000) Global implementation of ICM in cotton. Proceedings of the Brighton Crop Protection Conference 2000: pests and diseases British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, Surrey, pp 193–198Google Scholar
  111. Sekamatte MB, Russell DA, Luseesa D (2003) Advances in the extension of Ugandan cotton management. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-3, Cape Town, S Africa, 9–13 March 2003 (in press)Google Scholar
  112. Serunjogi LK (2001) The role of breeding in integrated crop management. Proceedings of the Technical Seminar of the 60th plenary meeting of the ICAC, Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe, Sept 2001. International Cotton Advisory Committee, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  113. Silvie P, Deguine JP, Nibouche S, Michel B, Vaissayre M (2000) Procedures advantages and constraints of staggered targeted control programmes on cotton in West Africa. Proceedings of the World Cotton Conference-2, 6–12 Sept 1998, Athens, Greece, pp 829–832Google Scholar
  114. Singh D, Singh K, Garg HR (2003) Management of cotton leaf curl disease vis-a-vis managing its vector (Bemisia tabaci Genn.). Proceedings of the World Cotton Research Conference-3, 9–13 March Cape Town, S Africa (in press)Google Scholar
  115. Sohi AS, Singh J, Brar DS, Russell DA (1998) Mating disruption of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) with sex pheromone as a component of IPM in the cotton agroecosystem. Proceedings of the workshop, non-pesticidal management of cotton and pigeon-pea pests, 10–11 April 1998, Hyderabad, India. Centre for World Solidarity and National Institute of Agricultural Extension Management, Hyderabad, India, pp 46–51Google Scholar
  116. Stadler T (2001) Integrated pest management of the cotton boll weevil in Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. ICAC Recorder 19 (4): 14–19Google Scholar
  117. Sterling WL (1984) Action and inaction levels in pest management. Tex Agric Stn Bull B 1480, 20 ppGoogle Scholar
  118. Stone ND, Gutierrez AP (1986) Pink bollworm control in Southwestern desert cotton. II A strategic model. Hilgardia 54: 25–41Google Scholar
  119. Sundaramurthy VT (2003) An integrated management system for managing the pink bollworm. Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and its effects on the productivity of cotton in the polycrop agro-system. World Cotton Conference-3, 9–13 March 2003, Cape Town, South Africa. (in press)Google Scholar
  120. Surulivelu T, Venugopal K, Kannan R, Pandi V (2000) Imidacloprid seed treatment–effect on sucking pests, predators, plant growth and productivity in cotton. Proceedings World Cotton Conference-2 Athens, Greece, 6–12 Sept 1998, pp 874–877Google Scholar
  121. Tabashnik BE, Schwartz JM, Finson N, Johnson MW (1992) Inheritance of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in diamondback moth ( Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). J Econ Entomol 85: 1046–1055Google Scholar
  122. Tan JG (1999) Insecticide resistance of cotton pests in China. Proceedings ICAC-CCRI regional consultation on insecticide resistance management in cotton. 28 June-1 July 1999, Multan, Pakistan. Central Cotton Research Institute, Multan, PakistanGoogle Scholar
  123. Tariq A, Rashid A (2000) Relative resistance of Gossypium species to insect complex under non-sprayed conditions. Proceedings World Cotton Research Conference-2, Athens, Greece, Sept 6–12, 1998, pp 878–879Google Scholar
  124. Thaxton M, El-Zik K (2000) Host plant resistance to pathogens in MAR cotton germplasm. Proceedings World Cotton Research Conference-2, Athens, Greece, September 6–12, 1998, pp 113–119Google Scholar
  125. Traore D, Hema OS, Traore S (2000) Optimum sample size of bollworms on cotton plants in Burkina Faso. Proceedings World Cotton Research Conference-2, Athens, Greece, September 6–12, 1998, pp 887–890Google Scholar
  126. Vaissayre M, Cauquil J, Silvie P (1997) Cotton pest management in tropical Africa: IPM tech- niques and resources. Agric Dévelop, Special issue, CIRAD, Montpellier, France, pp 20–40Google Scholar
  127. Van den Berg H, Cock MJ, Odour GI, Onsongo EK (1993) Incidence of Helicoverpa armigera ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its natural enemies in small-holder crops in Kenya. Bull Entomol Res 83: 321–328Google Scholar
  128. Van Elzakker B, Caldas T (1999) Organic cotton production. In: Myers D, Stolton S (eds) Organic cotton: from field to final product. Intermediate Technology Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  129. Vassal J-M, Vaissayre M, Martin T (1997) Decrease in the susceptibility of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) ( Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to pyrethroid insecticides in Cote d’Ivoire. Resist Pest Manage 9: 14–15Google Scholar
  130. Wu K, Li W, Feng H, Guo Y (2002) Seasonal abundance of the mirids, Lygus lucorum and Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Bt cotton in northern China. Crop Prot 21: 997–1002Google Scholar
  131. Wu Y, Lin Y, Yang Y (2003) Considerations for the proper use of mixtures for control of Helicoverpa armigera in cotton. Proceedings of the World Cotton Research Conference-3, 9–13 March, Cape Town, S Africa (in press)Google Scholar
  132. Zhao J, Xianlin F, Xiping S, Zhao R, Fan Y, Zhao JZ, Fan XL, Shi XP, Zhao RM, Fan YL (1997) Gene pyramiding: an effective strategy for resistance management for Helicoverpa armigera. Resist Pest Manage 9 (2): 19–21Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Russell
    • 1
  1. 1.Natural Resources InstituteUniversity of GreenwichKentUK

Personalised recommendations