An Example from Physics: Thermodynamics

  • Hermann Haken
Part of the Springer Series in Synergetics book series (SSSYN)


To visualize the meaning of the index i, let us identify it with the velocity of a particle. In a more advanced theory p i is the occupation probability of a quantum state i of a many-particle system. Further, we identify f i,α (k) with energy E and the parameter a with the volume. Thus we put
and have the identifications


Internal Energy Information Entropy Occupation Probability Advanced Theory Nonequilibrium Phase Transition 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hermann Haken
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Theoretische Physik und SynergetikUniversität StuttgartStuttgart 80Fed. Rep. of Germany
  2. 2.Center for Complex SystemsFlorida Atlantic UniversityBoca RatonUSA

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