Mortality and Economic Instability: Detailed Analyses for Britain

  • M. Harvey Brenner
Part of the Lecture Notes in Medical Informatics book series (LNMED, volume 21)


During the past decade, disturbances to the economies of industralized nations, and to that of the United Kingdom in particular, have again raised the question of the relative importance of a growing and stable economy to the health of a population. The question is whether, in a modern society, national health levels could be seriously damaged, or at least fail to improve, in the context of extraordinarily high unemployment rates, periods of violent inflation, general decline in manufacturing employment, and increased regional disparities in wealth and economic development.


Unemployment Rate Infant Mortality Capita Income Total Mortality Government Expenditure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. (1).
    Occupational Mortality: The Registrar General’s Decennial Supplement for England, 1970–72 London. London: H.M. Stationery Office (1976).Google Scholar
  2. (2).
    COCHRANE, A., ST. LEGER, A.S., MOORE, F.: Health Services ‘Input’ and Mortality ‘Output’ in Developed Countries.Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 32, 200–205 (1978).Google Scholar
  3. (3).
    PRESTON, S.H..: Mortality Patterns in National Populations. New York: Academic Press (1976).Google Scholar
  4. (4).
    BRENNER, M.H.: Mortality and the National Economy: A Review and the Experience of England and Wales, 1936–76. The Lancet, September 15, 568–573 (1979)Google Scholar
  5. (5).
    GARDNER, M.J., CRAWFORD, M.D., MORRIS, J.N.: Patterns of Mortality in Middle and Early Old Age in the County Boroughs of England and Wales. British Journal of Preventive and Social Medicine 23, 133–40 (1964).Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    BRENNER, M.H.: Industrialization and Economic Growth: Estimates of Their Effects on the Health of Populations. In: Assessing the Contributions of the Social Sciences to Health (Eds.: M.H. Brenner, A. Mooney, T. Nagy). Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press (1980).Google Scholar
  7. (7).
    EEC COMMISSION: Report on the Development of the Social Situation in the Community in 1974. Brussels, Luxembourg: EEC 61–62 (1975).Google Scholar
  8. (8).
  9. (9).
    MORIYAMA,I.M., KRUEGER, D.E., STAMLER,J.: Cardiovascular Disease in the United States. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press (1971).Google Scholar
  10. (10).
    Editorial: The Anomaly that Wouldn’t Go Away. The Lancet, November 4, 978, (1978).Google Scholar
  11. (11).
    ST. LEGER, A.S., COCHRANE, A.L., MOORE, F.: The Anomaly that Wouldn’t Go Away. The Lancet, November 25, 1153 (1978).Google Scholar
  12. (12).
    TOWNSEND,P.: Inequality and the Health Service. The Lancet, June 15, 1179–1184 (1974).Google Scholar
  13. (13).
    WOLFENDEN, H.W.: On the theoretical and practical considerations underlying the direct and indirect standardization of death rates. Population Studies 16, 188 (1962).Google Scholar
  14. (14).
    GRAVELLE, H.S.E., HUTCHINSON, G., STERN, J.: Mortality and Unemployment: A Critique of Brenner’s Time-Series Analysis. The Lancet, September 26, 675 (1981).Google Scholar
  15. (15).
    BRENNER, M.H.: Unemployment and Health. The Lancet, October 17, 874 (1981).Google Scholar


  1. 1.
    Maxcy-Rosenau. Public Health and Preventive Medicine, 11th ed. (Edited by Last J.M.). Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1980. Especially chapters 27,33,34, and 46.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    LaPorte R.E., Cresanta J.L., and Kuller L.H. The relationship of alcohol consumption to atherosclerotic heart disease. Prey. Med. 9, 22, 1980.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Proceedings of the Conference on the Decline of Coronary Heart Disease Mortality (Edited by Havlik R.J. and Feinleib M.). NIH Publication No. 79–1610, May 1979.Google Scholar


  1. 1.
    St. Leger A.S., Cochrane A.L., and Moore F. Factors associated with cardiac mortality in developed countries with particular reference to the consumption of wine. The Lancet 1, 1017, 1979.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Edwards G., Gross M.M., Keller M., Moser J., and Roam R. Alcohol-Related Disabilities, WHO Offset Publication No. 32. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1977.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    U.S. Department of the Treasury and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Report to the President and Congress on Health Hazards Associated with Alcohol and Methods to Inform the General Public of These Hazards. November 1980.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blackwelder W.C. Alcohol and mortality: The Honolulu Heart Study. The Amer. J. Med. 68, 164, 1980.Google Scholar


  1. 1.
    Florey C. du V., Melia R.J.W., and Darby S.C. Changing mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Great Britain 1968–76. Br. Med. J. 1, 635, 1978.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Marmot M.G. Changing social-class distribution of heart disease. Br. Med–J7–2, 1109, 1978.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Salonen J.T. Stopping smoking and long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Br. Heart J. 43, 463, 1980.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. The Women and Their Pregnancies. The Collaborative Perinatal Studies of the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke. DREW Publication No. (NIH) 73–379, 1972.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Logan R.L. Risk factors for ischaemic heart disease in normal men aged 40: Edinburgh-Stockholm Study. The Lancet 1, 949, 1978.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dean G. Factors related to respiratory and cardiovascular symptoms in the United Kingdom. J. Epi. Comm. Health 32, 86, 1978.Google Scholar

Winter Temperature

  1. 1.
    Bainton D., Moore F., and Sweetnam P. Temperature and deaths from ischaemic heart disease. Br. J. Prev. Soc. Med. 31, 49, 1977.Google Scholar

Health Services

  1. 1.
    Cochrane A.L., St. Leger A.S., and Moore F. Health service “input” and mortality “output” in developed countries. J. Epi. Comm. Health 32, 200, 1978.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chapman B.L. Effect of coronary care on myocardial infarct mortality. Br. Heart J. 42, 386, 1979.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Thom T.J. and Kannel W.B. Downward trends in cardiovascular mortality. Ann. Rev. Med. 32, 427, 1981.Google Scholar

Social Stress

  1. 1.
    McKinlay J.B. Social networks influences on morbid episodes and the career of help seeking. In The Relevance of Social Science for Medicine (Edited by Eisenberg L. and Kleinman t1.), p. 77. D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland, 1981.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Helsing K.J., Szklo M., and Comstock G.W. Factors associated with mortality after widowhood. Amer. J. Pub. Health 71, 802, 1981.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Theorell T. and Flodérus-Myrhed B. “Workload” and risk of myocardial infarction: A prospective psychosocial analysis. Int. J. Epi. 6, 17, 1977.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Siegrist J. Psychosocial risk constellations and first myocardial infarction. In Myocardial Infarction and Psychosocial Risks (Edited by Siegrist J. and Haihuber M.J. ), p. 41. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hinkle L.E.Jr. The effect of culture change, social change and changes in interpersonal relationships on health. In Stressful Life Events: Their Nature and Effects (Edited by Dohrenwend B.S. and Dohrenwend B.P. ), p. 9. Wiley, New York, 1974.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Syme S.L., Borhani N.O., and Buechley R.W. Cultural mobility and coronary heart disease in an urban area. Am. J. Epi. 82, 334, 1965.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Scotch N.A. and Geiger H.J. The epidemiology of essential hypertension: A review with special attention to psychologic and sociocultural factors. II. Psychologic and sociocultural factors in etiology. J. Chron. Dis. 16, 1183, 1963.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tyroler H.A. and Cassel J. Health consequences of culture change. II. The effect of urbanization on coronary heart mortality in rural residents. J. Chron. Dis. 17, 167, 1964.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cassel J. Factors involving sociocultural incongruity and change: Appraisal and implications for theoretical development. Milbank Meml. Fund. Q. 45, 41, 1967.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Caplan R.D. Social support, person-environment fit, and coping. In Mental Health and the Economy (Edited by Ferman L.A. and Gordus J.P. ), p. 89. The W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, Kalamazoo, Michigan, 1979.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brenner M.H. Mental Illness and the Economy. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1973.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Proceedings of the Forum on Coronary-Prone Behavior (Edited by Dembroski T.M.O. DHEW Publication no. (NIH) 78–1451, 1978.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Glass D.C. Type A behavior: Mechanisms linking behavioral and pathophysiologic processes. In Myocardial Infarction and Psychosocial Risks (Edited by Siegrist J. and Halhuber M.J.), p. 77. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Appels A. The syndrome of vital exhaustion and depression and its relationship to coronary heart disease. In Myocardial Infarction and Psychosocial Risks (Edited by Siegrist J. and Halhuber M.J. ), p. 116. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Atkinson J.W. Motivational determinants of risk-tâking behavior. Psych. Rev. 64, 359, 1957.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brenner M.H. Time Series Analysis of the Relationships Between Selected Economic and Social Indicators, 2 vols. U.S. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Va., March 1971.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kasl S.V., Cobb S., and Gore S. Changes in reported illness behavior related to termination of employment: A preliminary report. Int. J. Epi. 1, 111, 1972.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brenner M.H. Economic changes and heart disease mortality. Am. J. Pub. Health. 61, 606, 1971.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morris J.N. and Titmuss R.M. Health and social change. I. The recent history of rheumatic heart disease. The Medical Officer, p. 69, 26 August 1944.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bunn A.R. Inschaemic heart disease mortality and the business cycle in Australia. Am.J. Pub. Health 69, 772, 1979.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Brenner M.H. Fetal, infant and maternal mortality during periods of economic instability. Int. J. Health Serv. 3, 145, 1973.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brenner M.H. Trends in alcohol consumption and associated illnesses: Some effects of economic changes. Am. J. Pub. Health 65, 1279, 1975.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    U.S. Congress. Joint Economic Committee. Estimating the Social Costs of National Economic Policy: Implications for Mental and Physical Health an Criminal Aggression (By Brenner M.H.). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 26 October 1976.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Commission of the European Communities. Report on the Development of the Social Situation in the Community in 1974, p. 7. Brussels, March 1975.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moriyama I.M., Krueger D.E., and Stamler J. Cardiovascular Diseases in the United States. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1971Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Berkman L.F. and Syme S.L. Social networks, host resistance, and mortality: A nine-year follow-up of Alameda County residents. Am.J. Epi. 109, 186, 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Harvey Brenner
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Hygiene and Public Health & Department of Social RelationsThe Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations