• Yoshiteru Ishida
Part of the Advanced Information Processing book series (AIP)


We pursue immunity-based systems based on the idea that the immune system solves the “self-nonself discrimination” problem, which could lead to a logical problem: that of self-reference. Consequently, we introduce a distributed system, which divides the system into units. However, this is not the end of the story. What makes the self-referential problem more complicated is that the immune system is not a closed system but is open to the environment. But it is this “openness” that the immune system takes full advantage of in solving the problem of self-nonself discrimination. Thus, in the framework of immunity-based systems, an adaptive system is introduced to allow the population-based and indirect transfer of information from the environment.


Closed System Initial Design Adaptive System Autonomous Agent Logical Problem 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshiteru Ishida
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Knowledge-Based Information EngineeringToyohashi University of TechnologyTempaku, ToyohashiJapan

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