• R. Hoffmann
  • F. Kiesewetter
  • D. Whiting


Unter Aussparung von Schleimhaut, Handtellern und Fußsohlen finden sich am gesamten Integument des Menschen Haarfollikel, die eine in sich geschlossene komplexe Funktionseinheit, ein Miniaturorgan, darstellen. Topographisch-anatomisch werden vier Anteile unterschieden:


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Hutchinson PE, Thompson JR (1997) The cross-sectional size and shape of human terminal scalp hair. Br J Dermatol 136: 159–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hutchinson PE, Thompson JR (1999) The size and form of the medulla of human scalp hair is regulated by the hair cycle and cross-sectional size of the hair shaft. Br J Dermatol 140: 438–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kligman A (1959) The human hair cycle. J Invest Dermatol 31: 307–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Paus R, Cotsarelis G (1999) The biology of hair follicles. N Engl J Med 341: 491–497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Sperling LC (1991) Hair anatomy for the clinician. J Am Acad Dermatol 25: 1–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Solomon AR (1994) The transversely sectioned scalp biopsy specimen: The technique and an algorithm for its use in the diagnosis of alopecia. Adv Dermatol 9: 127–157 (discussion 158)Google Scholar
  7. Sperling LC, Lupton GP (1995) Histopathology of non-scarring alopecia. J Cutan Pathol 22: 97–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Frishberg DP, Sperling LC, Guthrie VM (1996) Transverse scalp sections: A proposed method for laboratory processing. J Am Acad Dermatol 35: 220–222Google Scholar
  9. Solomon AR (1994) The transversely sectioned scalp biopsy specimen: The technique and an algorithm for its use in the diagnosis of alopecia. Adv Dermatol 9: 127–157 (discussion 158)Google Scholar
  10. Sperling LC, Winton GB (199o) The transverse anatomy of androgenic alopecia. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 16: 1127–1133Google Scholar
  11. Whiting DA (1993) Diagnostic and predictive value of horizontal sections of scalp biopsy specimens in male pattern androgenetic alopecia. J Am Acad Dermatol 28: 755–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Headington JT (1996) Cicatricial alopecia. Dermatol Clin 14: 773–782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hermes B, Paus R (1998) Scar forming alopecia. Comments on classification, differential diagnosis and pathobiology. Hautarzt 49: 462–472Google Scholar
  14. Ioannides G (1982) Alopecia: A pathologist’s view. Int J Dermatol 21: 316–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nayar M, Schomberg K, Dawber RP, Millard PR (1993) A clinicopathological study of scarring alopecia. Br J Dermatol 128: 533–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Newton RC, Hebert AA, Freese TW, Solomon AR (1987) Scarring alopecia. Dermatol Clin 5: 603–618PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Templeton SF, Solomon AR (1994) Scarring alopecia: A classification based on microscopic criteria. J Cutan Pathol 21: 97–109Google Scholar
  18. Ahmad W, Faiyaz ul Hague M, Brancolini V et al. (1998) Alopecia universalis associated with a mutation in the human hairless gene. Science 279: 720–724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bergfeld WF (1989) Alopecia: Histologic changes. Adv Dermatol 4: 301–320 (discussion 321)Google Scholar
  20. Hoffmann R, Happle R (1999) Alopecia areata. 1: Clinical aspects, etiology, pathogenesis. Hautarzt 50: 222–231Google Scholar
  21. Jordaan HF, Louw M (1995) The moth-eaten alopecia of secondary syphilis. A histopathological study of 12 patients. Am J Dermatopathol 17: 158–162PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sperling LC, Lupton GP (1995) Histopathology of non-scarring alopecia. J Cutan Pathol 22: 97–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lachapelle JM, Pierard GE (1977) Traumatic alopecia in trichotillomania: A pathogenic interpretation of histologic lesions in the pilosebaceous unit. J Cutan Pathol 4: 51–67Google Scholar
  24. Muller SA (1987) Trichotillomania. Dermatol Clin 5: 595–601 Muller SA (1990) Trichotillomania: A histopathologic study in sixty-six patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 23: 56–62Google Scholar
  25. Hanly AJ, Jorda M, Badiavas E, Valencia I, Elgart GW (1999) Postoperative pressure-induced alopecia: report of a case and discussion of the role of apoptosis in non-scarring alopecia. J Cutan Pathol 26: 357–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hoffmann R, Happle R (1999) Pathogenetic significance of 5-alpha reductase isoenzymes for androgenetic alopecia. Hautarzt50: 165–173Google Scholar
  27. Jaworsky C, Kligman AM, Murphy GF (1992) Characterization of inflammatory infiltrates in male pattern alopecia: Implications for pathogenesis. Br J Dermato1127: 239–246Google Scholar
  28. Sueki H, Stoudemayer T, Kligman AM, Murphy GF (1999) Quantitative and ultrastructural analysis of inflammatory infiltrates in male pattern alopecia. Acta Derm Venereol 79: 347–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Whiting DA (1998) Scalp biopsy as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in androgenetic alopecia. Dermatol Therapy 8: 24–33Google Scholar
  30. Kligman AM (1961) Pathologic dynamics of human hair loss: I. Telogen effluvium. Arch Dermatol 83: 175–181 Whiting DA (1996) Chronic telogen effluvium: Iincreased scalp hair shedding in middle-aged women. J Am Acad Dermatol 35: 899–906Google Scholar
  31. Laman SD, Provost TT (1994) Cutaneous manifestations of lupus erythematosus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 20: 195–212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Abell E (1977) Immunofluorescent staining technics in the diagnosis of alopecia. South Med J 70:1407–1410 Adamson HG (1905) Lichen pilaris, seu spinulosus. Br J Dermatol 17: 78–79Google Scholar
  33. Kossard S (1994) Postmenopausal frontal fibrosing alopecia. Scarring alopecia in a pattern distribution. Arch Dermatol 130: 770–774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mehregan DA, Van Hale HM, Muller SA (1992) Lichen planopilaris: Clinical and pathologic study of forty-five patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 27: 935–942Google Scholar
  35. Braun-Falco O, Imai S, Schmoeckel C, Steger O, Bergner T (1986) Pseudopelade of Brocq. Dermatologica 172: 1823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brocq L (1885) Alopecia. J Cutan Vener Dis 3: 49–50Google Scholar
  37. Dawber R (1992) What is pseudopelade? Clin Exp Dermatol 17: 305–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pinkus H (1978) Differential patters of elastic fibres in scarring and non-scarring alopecias. J Cutan Pathol 5: 93–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jablonska ST, Chorzelski T, Lancucki L (1959) Mucinosis follicularis. Hautarzt 1o: 27–33Google Scholar
  40. Kanno S, Niizuma K, Machida S et al. (1984) Follicular mucinosis developing into cutaneous lymphoma. Report of two cases and review of literature and 64 cases in Japan. Acta Derm Venereol 64: 86–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Mehregan DA, Gibson LE, Muller SA (1991) Follicular mucinosis: Histopathologic review of 33 cases. Mayo Clin Proc 66: 387–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pinkus H (1957) Alopecia mucinosa. Arch Dermatol 76: 419–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sentis HJ, Willemze R, Scheffer E (1988) Alopecia mucinosa progressing into mycosis fungoides. A long-term follow-up study of two patients.Am J Dermatopathol 10: 478–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vakilzadeh F, Bröcker EB (1984) Syringolymphoid hyperplasia with alopecia. Br J Dermatol 110: 95-lotGoogle Scholar
  45. Caputo R, Veraldi S (1993) Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp. J Am Acad Dermatol 28: 96–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Dalziel KL, Telfer NR, Wilson CL, Dawber RP (1990) Tufted folliculitis. A specific bacterial disease? Am J Dermatopathol 12: 37–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hoffmann E (1908) Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens. Derm Ztschr 15: 122–123Google Scholar
  48. Wise F, Parkhurst H (1921) A rare form of suppurating cica- trizing disease of the scalp. Arch Dermatol 4: 75o - 758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Oosterwijk JC, van der Wielen MJ, van de Vosse E, Voorhoeve E, Bakker E (1995) Refinement of the localisation of the X linked keratosis follicularis spinulosa decal-vans (KFSD) gene in Xp22.13-p22.2. J Med Genet 32: 736–739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Porteous ME, Strain L, Logie LJ, Herd RM, Benton EC (1998) Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans: Confirmation of linkage to Xp22.13-p22.2. J Med Genet 35: 336–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Siemens H (1925) Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans. Dermatol Syphilol 151: 384–387Google Scholar
  52. Happle R (1979) X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata. Review of literature and report of a case. Hum Genet 53: 65–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Just M, Ribera M, Fuente MJ, Bielsa I, Ferrandiz C (1998) Hereditary hypotrichosis simplex. Dermatology 196: 339–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lalevic-Vasic BM, Polic D, Nikolic MM (1992) Marie Unna hereditary hypotrichosis. Ann Dermatol Venereol 119: 25–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Langer LO Jr, Krassikoff N, Laxova R et al. (1984) The trichorhino-phalangeal syndrome with exostoses: Four additional patients without mental retardation and review of the literature. Am J Med Genet 19: 81–112Google Scholar
  56. Traupe H, Happle R (1983) Alopecia ichthyotica. A characteristic feature of congenital ichthyosis. Dermatologica 167: 225–230Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Hoffmann
  • F. Kiesewetter
  • D. Whiting

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations