Heavy Metal Induced Oxidative Damage in Terrestrial Plants

  • B. P. Shaw
  • S. K. Sahu
  • R. K. Mishra
Chapter

Abstract

There are 110 elements in the periodic table with the elements from 104 to 110 being of somewhat recent discovery (www.sdfine.com). Of these chemical elements, metals make up the largest group; some 69 of the currently known elements, excluding the transuranium series, are metallic in character (Fig. 4.1). Also, out of the 10 most abundant elements in the earth’s crust, seven are metals (Table 4.1); aluminum occupies the third place, followed by iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and titanium (Mason 1958). Their characteristics, however, differ greatly within the biosphere.

Keywords

Ozone Selenium Vanadium NADPH Histidine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aasami T (1984) Pollution of soil by cadmium. In: Nriagu JO (ed) Changing metal cycles and human health, Dahlem Konferenzen. Springer, Berlin Hiedelberg New York, pp 95–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Absil MCP, van Scheppingen Y (1996) Concentration of selected heavy metals in benthic diatoms and sediment in the Westerschelde estuary. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 56: 1008–1015PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams WW III, Demmig-Adams B, Verhoeven AS, Baker DH (1995) ‘Photoinhibition’ during win-ter stress: involvement of sustained xanthophylls in cycle-dependent energy dissipation. Aust J Plant Physiol 22: 261–276Google Scholar
  4. Adriano DC (1986) Trace elements in the terrestrial environment. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Abner BA, Morel FMM (1995) Phytochelatin production in marine algae. 2. Induction by various metals. Limnol Oceanogr 40: 658–665Google Scholar
  6. Ahrland S (1968) Thermodynamics of complex formation between hard and soft acceptors and donors. Nature and scope of the classification of acceptors and donors as hard and soft. Struct Bonding 5: 118–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Albers PH, Camardese MB (1993a) Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 1. Constructed wetlands. Environ Toxicol Chem 12: 999–967Google Scholar
  8. Albers PH, Camardese MB (1993b) Effects of acidification on metal accumulation by aquatic plants and invertebrates. 2. Wetlands, ponds and small lakes. Environ Toxicol Chem 12: 969–976Google Scholar
  9. Allaway WH (1968) Agronomic controls over environmental cycling of trace elements. Adv Agron 20: 235–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Anonymous (1964) Encyclopedia of chemical science. Van Norstrand, Princeton, p 533Google Scholar
  11. Arduini I, Godbold DL, Antonino 0 (1996) Cadmium and copper uptake and distribution in Mediterranean tree seedlings. Physiol Plant 97: 111–117Google Scholar
  12. Asada K (1992) Production and scavenging of active oxygen in chloroplasts. In: Scandalios JG (ed) Photoinhibition. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, pp 173–192Google Scholar
  13. Asada K (1994) Production and action of active oxygen species in photosynthetic tissues. In: Foyer CH, Mullineaux PM (eds) Causes of photooxidative stress and amelioration of defense systems in plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 77–104Google Scholar
  14. Babiarz CL, Andren AW (1995) Total concentrations of mercury in Wisconsin ( USA) lakes and rivers. Water Air Soil Pollut 83: 173–183Google Scholar
  15. Babu TS, Sabat SC, Mohanty P (1992) Alterations in photosystem II organization by cobalt treatment in the cyanobacterium Spirulina plantensis. J Plant Biochem Biotechnol 1: 61–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Baker AJM, Reeves RD, Hajar ASM (1994) Heavy metal accumulation and tolerance in British population of the metallophyte Thalaspi caerulescens J. C. Presl ( Brassicaceae ). New Phytol 127: 61–68Google Scholar
  17. Barak NAE, Mason CF (1990) Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in five species of freshwater fish from eastern England. Sci Total Environ 92: 257–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bartosz G (1997) Oxidative stress in plants. Acta Physiol Plant 19: 47–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Baryla A, Laborde C, Montillet J-L, Triantaphylides C, Chagvardieff P (2000) Evaluation of lipid peroxidation as a toxicity bioassay for plants exposed to copper. Environ Pollut 109: 131–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Battle RW, Gaunt JK, Laidman DL (1976) The effect of photoperiod on endogenous y-tocopherol and plastochromanol in leaves of Xanthium strumarium L. ( Cocklebur ). Biochem Soc Trans 4: 484–486Google Scholar
  21. Bonnet M, Camares 0, Veisseire P (2000) Effects of zinc and influence of Acremonium lolii on growth parameters, chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activites of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. Apollo ). J Exp Bot 51: 945–953Google Scholar
  22. Bowen HJM (1979) Environmental chemistry of the elements. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Bratt CE, Arvidsson P-O, Carlsson M, Akerlund H-E (1995) Regulation of violaxanthin de-epoxidase activity by pH and ascorbate concentration. Photosynth Res 45: 169–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Breen AP, Murphy JA (1995) Reactions of oxyl radicals with DNA. Free Rad Biol Med 18:1033–1077 Brooks RR ( 1983 ) Biological methods of prospecting for minerals. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Cadenas E (1989) Biochemistry of oxygen toxicity. Annu Rev Biochem 58: 79–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cakmak I, Horst WJ (1991) Effect of aluminium on lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase activities in root tips of soybean ( Glycine max ). Physiol Plant 83: 463468Google Scholar
  27. Chaoui A, Mazhoudi S, Ghorbal MH, Ferjani EE (1997) Cadmium and zinc induction of lipid peroxidation and effects on antioxidant enzyme activities in bean ( Phaeolus vulagris L. ). Plant Sci 127: 139–147Google Scholar
  28. Chen J, Zhou J, Goldbrough PB (1997) Characterization of phytochelatin synthase from tomato. Physiol Plant 101: 165–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chuan MC, Shu GY, Liu JC (1996) Solubility of heavy metals in a contaminated soil: effects of redox potential and pH. Water Air Soil Pollut 90: 543–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Clarkson DT, Luttge V (1989) Divalent cations, transport and compartmentation. Prog Bot 51: 93112Google Scholar
  31. Connell DW, Miller GJ (1984) Chemistry and ecotoxicology of pollution. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Cruz AC, Fomssgaard, IS, Lacayo J (1994) Lead, arsenic, cadmium and copper in Lake Asososca, Nicaragua. Sci Total Environ 155: 229–236Google Scholar
  33. Cumming JR, Taylor GJ (1990) Mechanism of metal tolerance in plants: physiological adaptations for exclusion of metal ions from the cytoplasm. In: Alscher RG, Cumming JR (eds) Stress responses in plants: adaptation and acclimation mechanisms. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp 329356Google Scholar
  34. Davies MS, Francies D, Thomas JD (1991) Rapidity of cellular changes induced by zinc in a zinc tolerant and non-tolerant cultivar of Festuca rubra L. New Phytol 117: 103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. De Lima ML, Copeland L (1994) The effect of aluminium on respiration of wheat roots. Physiol Plant 90: 51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. De Vos CHR, Vonk MJ, Vooijs R, Schat H (1992) Glutathione depletion due to copper-induced phytochelatin synthesis causes oxidative stress in Silene cucubalus. Plant Physiol 98: 853–858PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. De Vos CH, Bookum WMT, Vooiji R, Schat H, de Kok LJ (1993) Effect of copper on fatty acid composition and peroxidation of lipids in the roots of copper tolerant and sensitive Silene cucubalus. Plant Physiol Biochem 31: 151–158Google Scholar
  38. Delhaize E, Ryan PR (1995) Aluminum toxicity in plants. Plant Physiol 107: 315–321 Demming-Adams B, Adams WW III (1992) Photoprotection and other responses of plants to high light stress. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 43: 599–626Google Scholar
  39. Demmig-Adams B, Adams WW III (1996a) The role of xanthophylls cycle carotenoids in the protection of photosynthesis. Trends Plant Sci 1: 21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Demming-Adams B, Adams WW III (1996b) Xanthophyll cycle and light stress in nature: uniform response to excess direct sunlight among higher plant species. Plant 198: 460–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Demming-Adams B, Gilmore AM, Adams WW III (1996) In vivo functions of carotenoids in higher plants. FASEB J 10: 403–412Google Scholar
  42. Denton GRW, Burdon-Jones C (1986) Trace metals in algae from the Great Barrier Reef. Mar Pollut Bull 17: 98–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Di Mascio P, Kaiser S, Sies H (1989) Lycopene as the most efficient biological carotenoid singlet oxygen quencher. Arch Biochem Biophys 274: 532–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Eskling M, Arvidsson P-O, Akerlund H-E (1997) The xanthophylls cycle, its regulation and components. Physiol Plant 100: 806–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fabris JG, Richardson BJ, O’Sullivan, Brown FC (1994) Estimation of cadmium, lead, and mercury concentrations in estuarine waters using the mussel Mytilus edulis planulatus L. Environ Toxicol Water Qual 9: 183–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fergusson JE (1990) The heavy elements: chemistry, environmental impact and health effects. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  47. Forstner U, Wittmann (1979) Metal pollution in the aquatic environment. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fowler SW (1990) Critical review of selected heavy metal and chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in the marine environment. Mar Envron Res 29: 1–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Foy CD, Chaney RL, White MC (1978) The physiology of metal toxicity in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 29: 511–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Foyer CH, Lelandais M, Kunert KJ (1994) Photooxidative stress in plants. Physiol Plant 92: 696–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Francesconi KA, Moore EJ, Edmonds JS (1994) Cadmium uptake from seawater and food by the western rock lobster Panulirus Cygnus. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 53: 219–223PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Frank HA, Cua A, Chynwat V, Young A, Gosztola D, Wasieleweski MR (1994) Photophysics of carotenoids associated with the xanthophylls cycle in photosynthesis. Photosynth Res 41: 389395Google Scholar
  53. Fridovich I (1978) The biology of oxygen radicals. Science 201: 875–880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Fryer MJ (1992) The antioxidant effects of thylakoid vitamin E (a-tocopherol). Plant Cell Environ 15: 381–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gallego SM, Benavides MP, Tomaro ML (1999) Effect of cadmium ions on antioxidant defense system in sunflower cotyledons. Biol Plant 42: 49–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gilmore AM, Govindjee (1999) How higher plants respond to excess light: energy dissipation in photosystem II. In: Singhal GS, Renger G, Sopory SK, Irrgang K-D, Govindjee (eds) Concepts in photobiology: photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 513–548Google Scholar
  57. Gilmore AM, Yamamoto HY (1993) Linear models relating xanthophylls and lumen acidity to non-photochemical fluorescence quenching. Evidence that antheraxanthin explains zeaxanthin-independent quenching. Photosynth Res 35: 67–78Google Scholar
  58. Gwozdz EA, Przymusinski R, Rucinska R, Deckert J (1997) Plant cell responses to heavy metals: molecular and physiological aspects. Acta Physiol Plant 19: 459–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Halliwell B (1981) Chloroplast metabolism: the structure and function of chloroplasts in green cells. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  60. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1985) Free radicals in biology and medicine. Clarendon Press, Oxford Hamasaki T, Nagase H, Yoshioka Y, Sato T (1995) Formation, distribution, and ecotoxicology of methylmetals of tin, mercury, and arsenic in the environment. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 25: 45–91Google Scholar
  61. Hendry GAF, Baker AJM, Ewart CF (1992) Cadmium tolerance and toxicity, oxygen radical processes and molecular damage in cadmium-tolerant and cadmium-sensitive clones of Holcus lanatus L. Acta Bot Neerl 41: 271–291Google Scholar
  62. Hippeli S, Elstner FE (1997) OH-radical-type reactive oxygen species: a short review on the mechanisms of OH-radical-and peroxynitrite toxicity. Z Naturforsch 52c: 555–563Google Scholar
  63. Horton P, Ruban AV, Walters RG (1996) Regulation of light harvesting in green plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 47: 655–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hu S, Tang CH, Wu M (1996) Cadmium accumulation by several seaweeds. Sci Total Environ 187: 65–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Husaini Y, Singh AK, Rai LC (1991) Cadmium toxicity to photosynthesis and associated electron transport system of Nostoc linckia. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 46: 146–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Heavy Metal Stress in Plants Irrgang K-D (1999) Architecture of the thylakoid membrane. In: Singhal GS, Renger G, Sopory SK, Irrgang K-D, Govinjee (eds) Concepts in photobiology: photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 139–180Google Scholar
  67. Jalil A, Selles F, Clarke JM (1994) Growth and cadmium accumulation in two durum wheat cultivars. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 25: 2597–2611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jastow JD, Koeppe DE (1980) Uptake and effect of cadmium in higher plants. In: Nriagu JO (ed) Cadmium in the environment, part 1. Ecological cycling. Wiley, New York, pp 607–638Google Scholar
  69. Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias H (1984) Trace elements in soils and plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton Kagi JHR, Hapke H-J (1984) Biochemical interactions of mercury, cadmium, and lead. In: Nriagu JO (ed) Changing metal cycles and human health, Dahlem Konferenzen. Springer, Berlin Hei-delberg New York, pp 237–250Google Scholar
  70. Kangasjarvi J, Talvinen J, Utriainen M, Karjalainen R (1994) Plant defence systems induced by ozone. Plant Cell Environ 17: 783–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Knox JP, Dodge AD (1985) Singlet oxygen and plants. Phytochemistry 24: 889–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kochian LV (1995) Cellular mechanism of aluminum toxicity and resistance in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 46: 237–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Krupa Z, Siedlecka A, Maksymiec W, Baszynski T (1993a) In vivo response of photosynthetic apparatus of Phaseolus vulgaris L. to nickel toxicity. J Plant Physiol 142: 664–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Krupa Z, Quist G, Huner NPA (1993b) The effects of cadmium on photosynthesis of Phaseolusvulgaris–a fluorescence analysis. Physiol Plant 88: 626–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kukkola E, Rautio P, Huttunen S (2000) Stress indications in copper-and nickel-exposed Scots pine seedlings. Environ Exp Bot 43: 197–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lapedes DN (1974) Dictionary of scientific and technical terms. McGraw Hill, New York, p 674 Larson RA (1988) The antioxidants of higher plants. Phytochemistry 27: 969–978Google Scholar
  77. Leita L, Contin M, Maggioni A (1991) Distribution of cadmium and induced Cd-binding proteins in root, stem and leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Sci 77: 139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lidon FC, Henriques FS (1993) Copper-mediated toxicity in rice chloroplasts. Photosynthetica 29: 385400Google Scholar
  79. Lodenius M (1990) Environmental mobilization of mercury and cadmium. Publ Dept Environ Consery Univ Helsinki, no 13, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  80. Logan BA, Demmig-Adams B, Adams WW III (1999) Acclimation of photosynthesis to the environment. In: Singhal GS, Renger G, Sopory SK, Irrgang K-D, Govindjee (eds) Concepts in photobiology: photosynthesis and photomorphogenesis. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 477–512Google Scholar
  81. Lozano-Rodriguez E, Hernandez LE, Bonay P, Carpena-Reiz RO (1997) Distribution of cadmium in mshoot and root tissue of maize and pea plants: physiological disturbances. J Exp Bot 48: 123–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Luna CM, Gonzales CA, Trippi VS (1994) Oxidative damage caused by an excess of copper in oat leaves. Plant Cell Physiol 35: 11–15Google Scholar
  83. Lund BO, Miller DM, Woods JS (1991) Mercury-induced H2O2 production and lipid peroxidation in vitro in rat kidney mitochondria. Biochem Pharmacol 42: S181 - S187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Maksymiec W (1997) Effect of copper on cellular processes in higher plants. Photosynthetica 34: 321–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Maksymeic W, Baszynski T (1996a) Chlorophyll fluorescence in primary leaves of excess Cu-treated runner bean plants depends on their growth stages and the duration of Cu-action. J Plant Physiol 149: 196–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Maksymeic W, Baszynski T (1996b) Different susceptibility of runner bean plants to excess copper as a function of growth stages of primary leaves. J Plant Physiol 149: 217–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Maksymiec W, Russa R, Urbanik-Spyniewska T, Baszynski T (1994) Effect of excess Cu on the photosynthetic apparatus of runner bean leaves treated at two different growth stages. Physiol Plant 91: 715–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Maksymiec W, Bednara J, Baszynski T (1995) Responses of runner bean plants to excess copper as a function of plant growth stages: effects on morphology and structure of primary leaves and their chloroplast ultrastructure. Photosynthetica 31: 427–435Google Scholar
  89. Manahan SE (1990) Environmental chemistry. Lewis Publishers, BostonGoogle Scholar
  90. Martin MH, Coughtrey PJ (1982) Biological monitoring of heavy metal pollution. Applied Science Publishers, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Martin RB (1988) Bioinorganic chemistry of aluminum. In: Siegel H, Siegel A (eds) Metal ions in biological systems: aluminum and its role in biology, vol 24. Dekker, New York, pp 2–57Google Scholar
  92. Martin RB (1992) Aluminum speciation in biology. In: Cjadwik DJ, Shelan J (eds) Aluminum in biology and medicine. Wiley, New York, pp 5–25Google Scholar
  93. Mason CF (1996) Biology of freshwater pollution. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  94. Mason G (1958) Principles of geochemistry. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  95. Mazhoudi S, Chaoui A, Ghorbal MH, Ferjani EE (1997) Response of antioxidant enzymes to excess copper in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.). Plant Sci 127: 129–137Google Scholar
  96. Misra SG, Mani D (1991) Soil pollution. Ashish Publishing House, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  97. Mocquot B, Vangronsveld J, Clijsters H, Mench M (1996) Copper toxicity in young maize (Zea mays L.) plants: effects on growth, mineral and chlorophyll contents, and enzyme activities. Plant Soil 182: 287–300Google Scholar
  98. Moller IM (2001) Plant mitochondria and oxidative stress: electron transport, NADPH turnover,and metabolism of reactive oxygen species. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 52: 561–591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Moral R, Palacious G, Gomez I, Navarro-Pedreno J, Mataix J (1994) Distribution and accumulation of heavy metals (Cd, Ni and Cr) in tomato plants. Fresenius Environ Bull 3: 395–399Google Scholar
  100. Muller HW, Schwaighofer B, Kalman W (1994) Heavy metal contents in river sediments. Water Air Soil Pollut 72: 191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Murthy SDS, Sabat SC, Mohanty P (1989) Mercury-induced inhibition of photosystem II activity and changes in the emission of fluorescence from phycobilisomes in intact cells of the cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis. Plant Cell Physiol 30: 1153–1157Google Scholar
  102. Naqui A, Chance B, Cadenas E (1986) Reactive oxygen intermediates in biochemistry. Annu Rev Biochem 55: 137–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nieboer E, Richardson DHS (1980) The replacement of the non-descriptive term «heavy metals» by a biologically and chemically significant classification of metal ions. Environ Pollut Ser B 1: 3–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nieboer E, Rossetto FE, Menon R (1988) Toxicology of nickel compounds. In: Siegel H, Siegel A (eds) Nickel and its role in biology. Dekker, New York, pp 359–402 (Metal ions in biological systems, vol 23 )Google Scholar
  105. Ochiai E-I (1977) Bioinorganic chemistry: an introduction. Allyn and Bacon, BostonGoogle Scholar
  106. Ono K, Yamamoto Y, Hachiya A, Matsumoto H (1995) Synergistic inhibition of growth by Al and iron of tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) cells in suspension culture. Plant Cell Physiol 36: 115–125Google Scholar
  107. Owens TG (1996) Processing of excitation energy by antenna pigments. In: Baker NR (ed) Photo-synthesis and the environment. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  108. Padmaja K, Prasad DDK, Prasad ARK (1990) Inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings by cadmium acetate. Photosynthetica 24: 399–405Google Scholar
  109. Parekh D, Puranik RM, Srivastava HA (1990) Inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis by cadmium in greening maize leaf segments. Biochem Physiol Pflanz 186: 239–242Google Scholar
  110. Pearson R (1968a) Hard and soft acids and bases, HSAB, part I. Fundamental principles. J Chem Educ 45: 581–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Pearson R (1968b) Hard and soft acids and bases, HSAB, part II. Underlying theories. J Chem Educ 45: 643–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Polie A, Matyssek R, Gunthardt-Goerg MS, Maurer S (2000) Defense strategies against ozone in trees: the role of nutrition. In: Agrawal SB, Agrawal M (eds) Environmental pollution and plant responses. Lewis Publishers, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  113. Prasad SM, Singh JB, Rai LC, Kumar HD (1991) Metal-induced inhibition of photosynthetic elec-tron transport chain of the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. FEMS Microbiol Lett 82: 95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Prudente MS, Ichihashi H, Tatsukawa R (1994) Heavy metal concentrations in sediments from Manila Bay, Philippines, and inflowing rivers. Environ Pollut 86: 83–88Google Scholar
  115. Quariti O, Gouia J, Ghorbal MH (1997) Responses of bean and tomato plants to cadmium: growth, mineral nutrition, and nitrate reduction. Plant Physiol Biochem 35: 347–354Google Scholar
  116. Rai LC, Singh AK, Mallick N (1991a) Studies on photosynthesis, the associated electron transport system and some physiological variables of Chlorella vulgaris under heavy metal stress. J Plant Physiol 137: 419–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rai LC, Mallick N, Singh JB, Kumar HD (1991b) Physiological and biochemical characteristics of a copper tolerant and a wild type strain of Anabaena doliolum under copper stress. J Plant Physiol 68–74Google Scholar
  118. Rauser WE (1995) Phytochelatins and related peptides. Plant Physiol 109: 1141–1149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rijstenbil JW, Derksen JWM, Gerringa LJA, Poortvliet TCW, Sandee A, van den Berg M, van Drie J, Wijnholds JA (1994) Oxidative stress induced by copper: defense and damage in the marine planktonic diatom Ditylum brightwellii, grown in continuous cultures with high and low zinc levels. Mar Biol 119: 583–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rout NP, Shaw BP (2001) Salt tolerance in aquatic macrophytes: possible involvement of the antioxidative enzymes. Plant Sci 160: 415–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Ruban AV, Young AJ, Horton P (1996) Dynamic properties of the minor chlorophyll a b binding proteins of photosystem II, an in vitro model for photoprotective energy dissipation in the photosynthetic membrane of green plants. Biochemistry 35: 674–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rucinska R, Waplak S, Gwozdz EA (1999) Free radical formation and activity of antioxidant enzymes in lupin roots exposed to lead. Plant Physiol Biochem 37: 187–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Saiki MK, Castleberry DT, May TW, Martin BA, Bullard FN (1995) Copper, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in aquatic food chain from the upper Sacramento river ( California) and selected tributaries. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 29: 484–491Google Scholar
  124. Samecka-Cymerman A, Kempers AJ (1996) Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by aquatic macrophytes around Wroclaw, Poland. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 35: 242–247Google Scholar
  125. Sawidis T, Chettri MK, Zachariadis GA, Stratis JA (1995a) Heavy metals in aquatic plants and sediments from water systems in Macedonia, Greece. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety 32: 73–80Google Scholar
  126. Sawidis T, Chetri MK, Zachariadis GA, Strtis JA, Seaward MRD (1995b) Heavy metal bioaccumulation in lichens from Macedonia in northern Greece. Toxicol Environ Chem 50: 157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Schicker H, Caspi H (1999) Response of antioxidative enzymes to nickel and cadmium stress in hyperaccumulator plants of the genus Alyssum. Physiol Plant 105: 39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Shaw BP (1995a) Changes in the levels of photosynthetic pigments in Phaseolus aureus Roxb. exposed to Hg and Cd at two stages of development: a comparative study. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 55: 574–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Shaw BP (1995b) Effects of mercury and cadmium on the activities of antioxidative enzymes in the seedlings of Phaseolus aureus Roxb. Biol Plant 37: 587–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Shaw BP, Panigrahi AK (1986) Uptake and tissue distribution of mercury in some plant species collected from a contaminated area in India: its ecological implications. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 15: 439–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Shaw BP, Panigrahi AK (1987) Geographical distribution of mercury around a chlor-alkali factory. J Environ Biol 8: 227–281Google Scholar
  132. Shaw BP, Rout NP (1998) Age-dependent responses of Phaseolus aureus Roxb. to inorganic salts of mercury and cadmium. Acta Physiol Plant 20: 85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Shaw BP, Rout NP (2002) Hg and Cd induced changes in the level of proline and the activity of proline biosynthesizing enzymes in Phaseolus aureus Roxb. and Triticum aestivum L. Biol Plant 45: 267–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Shaw BP, Sahu A, Panigrahi AK (1985) Residual mercury concentration in brain, liver and muscle of contaminated fish collected from an estuary near a caustic-chlorine industry. Curr Sci 54: 810–812Google Scholar
  135. Shaw BP, Sahu A, Panigrahi AK (1986) Mercury in plants, soil and water from a caustic-chlorine industry. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 36: 299–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Shaw BP, Sahu A, Choudhuri SB, Panigrahi AK (1988) Mercury in the Rushikulya river estuary. Mar Pollut Bull 19: 233–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Sheoran IS, Singal HR, Singh R (1990) Effect of cadmium and nickel on photosynthesis and the enzymes of the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle in pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan L. ). Photosynth Res 23: 345–351Google Scholar
  138. Siegel N, Haug A (1983) Aluminum interaction with calmodulin: evidence for altered structure and function from optical and enzymatic studies. Biochem Biophys 744: 36–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Siegel N, Coughlin RT, Haug A (1983) A thermodynamic and electron paramagnetic resonance study of structural changes in calmodulin induced by aluminum interaction with calmodulin: evidence for altered structure and function from optical and enzymatic studies. Biochem Biophys Acta 744: 36–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Silver S (1983) Bacterial interactions with mineral cations and anions: good ions and bad. In: Wesbrock P, de Jong EW (eds) Biomineralization and biological metal ion accumulation. Reidel, Amsterdam, pp 439–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Skorzynska-Polit E, Baszynski T (1997) Difference in sensitivity of the photosynthetic apparatus in Cd-stressed runner bean plants in relation to their age. Plant Sci 128: 11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Stadtman ER (1992) Protein oxidation and aging. Science 257: 1220–1224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Stiborova M, Ditrichova M, Brezinova A (1987) Effect of heavy metal ions on growth and biochemical characteristics of photosynthesis of barley maize seedlings. Biol Plant 29: 453–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Stiborova M, Dtrichova M, Brezinova A (1988) Mechanism of action of Cue+, Co2+ and Zn2 on ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase from barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. ). Photosynthetica 22: 161–167Google Scholar
  145. Stohs SJ, Bagchi D (1995) Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Rad Biol Med 18: 321–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Stroinski A (1999) Some physiological and biochemical aspects of plant resistance to cadmium effect. I. Antioxidative system. Acta Physiol Plant 21: 175–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Subhadra AV, Nanda AK, Behera PK, Panda BB (1991) Acceleration of catalase and peroxidase activities in Lemna minor L. and Allium cepa L. in response to low levels of aquatic mercury. Environ Pollut 69: 169–179Google Scholar
  148. Suszcynsky EM, Shann JR (1995) Phytotoxicity and accumulation of mercury in tobacco subjected to different exposure routes. Environ Toxicol Chem 14: 61–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Teisseire H, Guy V (2000) Copper-induced changes in antioxidant enzymes activities in fronds of duckweed ( Lemna minor ). Plant Sci 153: 65–72Google Scholar
  150. Thompson DR, Stewart FM, Furness RW (1990) Using seabirds to monitor mercury in marine environments. Mar Pollut Bull 21: 339–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Toli K, Misaelides P, Godelitsas A (1997) Distribution of heavy metals in the aquatic environment of the kerkini lake (N. Greece): an exploratory study. Fresenius Environ Bull 6: 605–610Google Scholar
  152. Venugopal B, Luckey TD (1975) Toxicology of non-radioactive heavy metals and their salts. In: Luckey TD, Venugopal B, Hutchenson D (eds) Heavy metal toxicity, safety and hormology. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 4–73Google Scholar
  153. Verstraeten SV, Nogueira LV, Schreier S, Oteiza PI (1997) Effect of trivalent metal ions on phase separation and membrane lipid packing: role in lipid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 388: 121–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Wardman P, Cadeias LP (1996) Fenton chemistry: an introduction. Radiat Res 145: 525–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Weckx JEJ, Clijsters HMM (1996) Oxidative damage and defense mechanisms in primary leaves of Phaeolus vulgaris as a result of root assimilation of toxic amounts of copper. Physiol Plant 96: 506–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Weckx JEJ, Clijsters HMM (1997) Zn phytotoxicity induces oxidative stress in primary leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Physiol Biochem 35: 405–410Google Scholar
  157. Wheeler DM, Power IL (1995) Comparison of plant uptake and plant toxicity of various ions in wheat. Plant Soil 172: 167–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Wong JWC (1996) Heavy metal contents in vegetables and market garden soils in Hong Kong. Environ Technol 17: 407–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Wood JM (1974) Biological cycles for toxic elements in the environment. Science 183: 1049–1052 Yamamoto HY (1979) The biochemistry of the violaxanthin cycle in higher plants. Pure Appl Chem 51: 639–648Google Scholar
  160. Yamamoto HY, Bassi R (1996a) Carotenoids: localization and function. In: Ort DR, Yocum CF (eds) Oxygenic photosynthesis: the light reactions. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 539–563 (Advances in photosynthesis, vol 4 )Google Scholar
  161. Yamamoto HY, Bassi R (1996b) Carotenoids: localization and function. In: Donald R, Yocum CF (eds) Photosynthesis: the light reactions. Kluwer, London, pp 539–563Google Scholar
  162. Yamamoto M (1996) Stimulation of elemental mercury oxidation in the presence of chloride ion in aquatic environments. Chemosphere 32: 1217–1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Yamamoto Y, Hachiya A, Matsumoto H (1997) Oxidative damage to membranes by a combination of aluminum and iron in suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Plant Cell Physiol 38: 1333–1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Yan CTDC, Schofield CL, Munson R, Holsapple J (1994) The mercury cycle and fish in the Adirondack lakes. Environ Sci Technol 28: 136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Yruela I, Motoya G, Picorel R (1992) The inhibitory mechanism of Cu(II) on the photosystem II electron transport from higher plants. Photosynth Res 33: 227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Yruela I, Gatzen G, Picorel R, Holzwarth AR (1996) Cu(II)-inhibitory effect on photosystem II from higher plants. A picosecond time-resolved fluorescence study. Biochemistry 35: 9469–9474 Yurukova L, Kochev L (1994) Heavy metal concentrations in freshwater macrophytes from the Aldomirovsko swamp in Sofia district, Bulgaria. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 52: 627–632Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. P. Shaw
    • 1
  • S. K. Sahu
    • 1
  • R. K. Mishra
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Life SciencesOrissaIndia

Personalised recommendations