Heavy Metals as Essential Nutrients

  • Zdenko Rengel


Many heavy metals are essential for plants and animals when present in the growing medium in low concentrations (micronutrients: Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Co); they become toxic only when a concentration limit is exceeded (in which case the term ‘heavy metals’ rather than ‘micronutrients’ is used). This review will concentrate on Fe, Zn and Mn, while the reader is referred to other publications for a more comprehensive coverage of micronutrients (Marschner and Römheld 1991; Marschner 1995; Welch 1995; Reid 2001).


Carbonic Anhydrase Zinc Deficiency Wheat Genotype Zinc Transporter Durum Wheat Genotype 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zdenko Rengel
    • 1
  1. 1.Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesThe University of Western AustraliaCrawleyAustralia

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