Advertisement

Natural-Rubber-Latex Allergy

  • K. Turjanmaa
  • H. Alenius
  • S. Mäkinen-Kiljunen
  • T. Reunala
  • T. Palosuo

Abstract

The history of natural-rubber-latex (NRL) allergy is relatively short; the first case reports appeared in 1979–1980 in the European (Nutter 1979; Förström 1980) and in 1989 in the North American (Slater 1989; Spaner et al. 1989; Taylor et al. 1989) literature. During the last 10 years, NRL allergy has become acknowledged as a major occupational problem among glove-using health-care workers. In addition, several authors have paid attention to the fact that NRL allergy also frequently occurs outside the health-care environment. Populations at increased risk include not only glove-using kitchen workers and housekeeping personnel (Turjanmaa 1988; Sussman and Beezhold 1995; Taylor and Praditsuwan 1996) but also children, who may exhibit allergic reactions when blowing balloons (Axelsson et al. 1988; Sorva et al. 1995). Even patients allergic to various fruits, such as banana and avocado, may experience allergic reactions to NRL and vice versa (M’Raihi et al. 1991; Blanco et al. 1994a; Mäkinen-Kiljunen 1994; Lavaud et al. 1995).

Keywords

Allergy Clin Immunol Spina Bifida Occupational Asthma Natural Rubber Latex Hand Eczema 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahlroth M, Alenius H, Turjanmaa K, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Reunala T, Palosuo T (1995) Cross-reacting allergens in natural rubber latex and avocado. J Allergy Clin Immunol 96:167–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akasawa A, Hsieh LS, Lin Y (1995) Serum reactivities to latex proteins (Hevea brasiliensis). J Allergy Clin Immunol 95: 1196–1205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akasawa A, Hsieh S-H, Martin BM, Liu T, Lin Y (1996) A novel acidic allergen, Hev b 5, in latex. J Biol Chem 271:25389–25393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alenius H, Turjanmaa K, Palosuo T, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Reunala T (1991) Surgical latex glove allergy: characterization of rubber protein allergens by immunoblotting. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 96:376–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alenius H, Palosuo T, Kelly K, Kurup V, Reunala T, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Turjanmaa K, Fink J (1993) IgE reactivity to 14-kD and 27-kD natural rubber proteins in latex-allergic children with spina bifida and other congenital anomalies. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 102:61–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alenius H, Kalkkinen N, Lukka M, Turjanmaa K, Reunala T, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Palosuo T (1994a) Purification and partial amino acid sequencing of a 27 kD natural rubber allergen recognized by latex allergic children with spina bifida. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 106:258–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alenius H, Kurup V, Kelly K, Palosuo T, Turjanmaa K, Fink J (1994b) Latex allergy: frequent occurrence of IgE antibodies to a cluster of 11 latex proteins in patients with spina bifida and histories of anaphylaxis. J Lab Clin Med 123:712–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Alenius H, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Turjanmaa K, Palosuo T, Reunala T (1994c) Allergen and protein content of latex gloves. Ann Allergy 73:315–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Alenius H, Turjanmaa K, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Reunala T, Palosuo T (1994d) IgE immune response to rubber proteins in adult patients with latex allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93:859–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alenius H, Kalkkinen N, Lukka M, Reunala T, Turjanmaa K, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Yip E, Palosuo T (1995) Prohevein from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is a major latex allergen. Clin Exp Allergy 25:659–665PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Alenius H, Kalkkinen N, Reunala T, Turjanmaa K, Palosuo T (1996a) The main IgE-binding epitope of a major latex allergen, prohevein, is present in it’s n-terminal 43 amino acid fragment, hevein. J Immunol 156:1618–1625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Alenius H, Kalkkinen N, Turjanmaa K, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Reunala T, Palosuo T (1996b) Significance of the rubber elongation factor as a latex allergen. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 109:362–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Alenius H, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Ahlroth M, Turjanmaa K, Reunala T, Palosuo T (1996c) Cross-reactivity between allergens in natural rubber latex and banana studied by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition methods. Clin Exp Allergy 26:341–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Appleyard J, Mccullough J, Ownby D (1994) Cross-reactivity between latex, ragweed, and blue grass allergens (abstract). J Allergy Clin Immunol 93:182Google Scholar
  15. Arellano R, Bradley J, Sussman G (1992) Prevalence of latex sensitization among hospital physicians occupationally exposed to latex gloves. Anesthesiology 77:905–908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Axelsson J, Johansson S, Wrangsjö K (1987) IgE-mediated anaphylactoid reactions to rubber. Allergy 42:46–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Axelsson I, Eriksson M, Wrangsjö K (1988) Anaphylaxis and angioedema due to rubber allergy in children. Acta Paediatr Scand 77:314–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Baur X, Chen Z, Rozynek P, Duser M, Raulf-Heimsoth M (1995) Cross-reacting IgE antibodies recognizing latex allergens, including Hev b 1, as well as papain. Allergy 50:604–609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Beezhold D, Beck W (1992) Surgical glove powders bind latex antigens. Arch Surg 127:1354–1357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Beezhold D, Sussman G, Kostyal D, Chang N (1994) Identification of a 46-kd latex protein allergen in health care workers. Clin Exp Immunol 98:408–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Beezhold DH, Sussman GL, Liss GM, Chang NS (1996) Latex allergy can induce clinical reactions to specific foods. Clin Exp Allergy 26:416–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Blanco C, Carrillo T, Castillo R, Quiralte J, Cuevas M (1994a) Avocado hypersensitivity. Allergy 49:454–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Blanco C, Carrillo T, Castillo R, Quiralte J, Cuevas M (1994b) Latex-allergy: clinical features and cross-reactivity with fruits. Ann Allergy 73:309–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Broekaert I, Lee H, Kush A, Chua N, Raikhel N (1990) Wound-induced accumulation of mRNA containing a hevein sequence in laticifers of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:7633–7637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Capriles-Hulet A, Sanchez-Borges M, von Scazoni C, Medina J (1995) Very low frequency of latex and fruit allergy in patients with spina bifida from Venezuela: Influence of socioeconomic factors. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 75:62–64Google Scholar
  26. Chambeyron C, Dry J, Leynadier F, Pecquet C, Tran X (1992) Study of the allergenic fractions of latex. Allergy 47:92–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Charous B, Hamilton R, Yunginger J (1994) Occupational latex exposure: characteristics of contact and systemic reactions in 47 workers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 94:12–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chen Z, Posch A, Raulf-Heimsoth M, Baur X (1996) Isolation and identification of hevein as a major IgE-binding polypeptide in latex from Hevea brasiliensis (abstract). J Allergy Clin Immunol 97:428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Czuppon AB, Chen Z, Rennert S, Engelke T, Meyer HE, Heber M, Baur X (1993) The rubber elongation factor of rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) is the major allergen in latex. J Allergy Clin Immunol 92:690–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. De Corres L, Moneo I, Munoz D, Bernaola G, Fernandez E, Audicana M, Urrutia I (1993) Sensitization from chestnuts and bananas in patients with urticaria and anaphylaxis from contact with latex. Ann Allergy 70:35–39Google Scholar
  31. Dennis M, Henzel W, Bell J, Kohr W, Light D (1989) Amino acid sequence of rubber elongation factor protein associated rubber particles in Hevea latex. J Biol Chem 264:18618–18626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Förström L (1980) Contact urticaria from latex surgical gloves. Contact Dermatitis 6:33–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gidrol X, Chrestin H, Tan H, Kush A (1994) Hevein, a lectin-like protein from Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree) is involved in the coagulation of latex. J Biol Chem 269:9278–9283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hadjiliadis D, Khan K, Tarlo S (1995) Skin test responses to latex in an allergy and asthma clinic. J Allergy Clin Immunol 96:431–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hamann CP, Turjanmaa K, Rietschel R, Siew C, Owensby D, Gruninger SE, Sullivan KM (1998) Natural rubber latex hypersensitivity: Incidence and prevalence of type I allergy in the dental professional. J Am Dent Assoc 129:43–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hamilton R, Charous B, Adkinson N, Yunginger J (1994) Serologic methods in the laboratory diagnosis of latex rubber allergy: study of nonammoniated, ammoniated latex, and glove (end-product) extracts as allergen reagent sources. J Lab Clin Med 123:594–604PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Jäger D, Kleinhans D, Czuppon A, Baur X (1992) Latex-specific proteins causing immediate-type cutaneous, nasal, bronchial, and systemic reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89: 759–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jekel P, Hartmann B, Beintema J (1991) The primary structure of hevamine, an enzyme with lysozyme/chitinase activity from Hevea brasiliensis latex. Eur J Biochem 200:123–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kaczmarek R, Silverman B, Gross T, Hamilton R, Kessler E, Arrowsmith-Lowe T, Moore R (1996) Prevalence of latex-specific IgE antibodies in hospital personnel. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 76:51–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kelly K, Kurup V, Zacharisen M, Resnick A, Fink J (1993) Skin and serologic testing in the diagnosis of latex allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 91:1140–1145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kelly K, Pearson M, Kurup V, Havens P, Byrd R, Setlock M, Butler J, Slater J, Grammer L, Resnick A, Fink J (1994) A cluster of anaphylactic reactions in children with spina bifida during general anesthesia: epidemiologic features, risk factors, and latex hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 94:53–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lavaud F, Prevost A, Cossart C, Guerin L, Bernard J, Kochman S (1995) Allergy to latex, avocado pear, and banana — evidence for a 30 kd antigen in immunoblotting. J Allergy Clin Immunol 95:557–564PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lee H, Broekaert W, Raikhel N, Lee H (1991) Co- and post-translational processing of the hevein preproprotein of latex of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). J Biol Chem 266: 15944–15948PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Levy D, Charpin D, Pecquet C, Leynadier F, Vervloet D (1992) Allergy to latex. Allergy 47:579–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Leynadier F, Dry J (1991) Allergy to latex. Clin Rev Allergy 9: 371–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Leynadier F, Pecquet C, Dry J (1989) Anaphylaxis to latex during surgery. Anaesthesia 44:547–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Light D, Dennis M (1989) Purification of a prenyl transferase that elongates cis isoprene rubber from latex of Hevea brasiliensis. J Biol Chem 269:9278–9283Google Scholar
  48. Liss GM, Sussman GI, Deal K, Brown S, Cividino M, Siu S, Beezhold DH, Smith G, Swanson MC, Yunginger J, Douglas A, Holness DL, Lebert P, Keith P, Wasserman S, Turjanmaa K (1997) Latex allergy: epidemiological study of 1351 hospital workers. Occup Environ Med 54:335–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lu L, Kurup V, Hoffman D, Kelly K, Murali P, Fink J (1995) Characterization of a major latex allergen associated with hypersensitivity in spina bifida patients. J Immunol 155: 2721–2728PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Maibach H, Johnson H (1975) Contact urticaria syndrome. Arch Dermatol 111:726–730PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. M’Raihi L, Charpin D, Pons A, Bongrand P, Vervloet D (1991) Cross-reactivity between latex and banana. J Allergy Clin Immunol 87:129–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mäkinen-Kiljunen S (1994) Banana allergy in patients with immediate-type hypersensitivity to natural rubber latex: characterization of cross-reacting antibodies and allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93:990–996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Sorva R, Juntunen-Backman K (1992a) Latex dummies as allergens. Lancet 339:1608–1609PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Turjanmaa K, Palosuo T, Reunala T (1992b) Characterization of latex antigens and allergens in surgical gloves and natural rubber by immunoelectrophoretic methods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 90:230–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Reunala T, Turjanmaa K, Cacioli P (1993) Is cows milk caScin an allergen in latex-rubber gloves? Lancet 342:863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moneret-Vautrin DA, Beaudouin E, Widmer S, Mouton C, Kanny G, Prestat F, Kohler C, Feldmann L (1993) Prospective study of risk factors in natural rubber latex hypersensitivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 92:668–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Morales C, Basomba A, Carreira J, Sastre A (1989) Anaphylaxis produced by rubber glove contact: case reports and immunological identification of the antigens involved. Clin Exp Allergy 19:425–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nutter A (1979) Contact urticaria to rubber. Br J Dermatol 101:597–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ownby D, McCullough J (1993) Testing for latex allergy. J Clin Immunoassay 16:109–113Google Scholar
  60. Ownby D, Ownby H, McCullough J, Shafer A (1996) The prevalence of anti-latex IgE antibodies in 1000 volunteer blood donors. J Allergy Clin Immunol 97:1188–1192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Palosuo T, Turjanmaa K, Reinikka-Railo H (1997) Allergen content of latex gloves. A market surveillance study of medical gloves used in Finland in 1997. National Agency for Medicines, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  62. Palosuo T, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Alenius H, Reunala T, Yip E, Turjanmaa K (1998) Measurement of natural rubber latex allergen levels in medical gloves by allergen-specific IgE-ELISA inhibition, RAST inhibition, and skin prick test. Allergy 53:59–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pisati G, Baruffini F, Bernabeo F, Stanizzi R (1994) Bronchial provocation testing in the diagnosis of occupational asthma due to latex surgical gloves. Eur Respir J 7:332–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pittman T, Kiburz J, Gabriel K, Steinhardt G, Williams D, Slater J (1995) Latex allergy in children with spina bifida. Pediatr Neurosurg 22:96–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rodriguez M, Vega F, Garcia MT, Panizo C, Laffond E, Montalvo A, Cuevas M (1993) Hypersensitivity to latex, chestnut, and banana. Ann Allergy 70:31–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Ross B, Mccullough J, Ownby D (1992) Partial cross-reactivity between latex and banana allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 90:409–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Slater J (1989) Rubber anaphylaxis. N Engl J Med 320:626–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Slater J (1991) Medical rubber anaphylaxis. Lancet 337:187PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Slater J (1994) Latex allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 94:139–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Slater J, Chhabra S (1992) Latex antigens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89:673–678PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Slater J, Mostello L, Shaer C (1991) Rubber specific IgE in children with spina bifida. J Urol 146:578–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Slater JE, Vedvick T, Arthur-Smith A, Trybul DE, Keckwick RGO (1996) Identification, cloning, and sequence of a major allergen (Hev b 5) from natural rubber latex (Hevea brasi-liensis). J Biol Chem 271:25394–25399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sorva R, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Suvilehto K, Juntunen-Backman K, Haahtela T (1995) Latex allergy in children with no known risk factor for latex sensitization. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 6:36–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Spaner D, Dolovich J, Tarlo S, Sussman G, Buttoo K (1989) Hypersensitivity to natural latex. J Allergy Clin Immunol 83:1135–1137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Sunderasan E, Hamzah S, Hamid S, Ward MA, Yeang HY, Cardosa MJ (1995) Latex B-serum ß-1,3-glucanase (Hev b II) and a component of the microhelix (Hev b IV) are major latex allergens. J Nat Rubber Res 10:82–99Google Scholar
  76. Sussman G, Beezhold D (1995) Allergy to latex rubber. Ann Intern Med 122:43–46PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sussman G, Tarlo S, Dolovich J (1991) The spectrum of IgE-mediated responses to latex. JAMA 265:2844–2847PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Swanson M, Bubak M, Hunt L, Yunginger J, Warner M, Reed C (1994) Quantification of occupational latex aeroallergens in a medical center. J Allergy Clin Immunol 94:445–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tarlo S, Wong L, Roos J, Booth N (1990) Occupational asthma caused by latex in a surgical glove manufacturing plant. J Allergy Clin Immunol 85:626–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Tarlo S, Sussman G, Contala A, Swanson M (1994) Control of airborne latex by use of powder-free latex gloves. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93:985–989PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Taylor J, Praditsuwan P (1996) Latex allergy. Review of 44 cases including outcome and frequent association with allergic hand eczema. Arch Dermatol 132:265–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Taylor J, Cassettari J, Wagner W, Helm T (1989) Contact urticaria and anaphylaxis to latex. J Am Acad Dermatol 21:874–877PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Tomazic V, Shampaine E, Lamanna A, Withrow T, Adkinson N, Hamilton R (1994) Cornstarch powder on latex products is an allergen carrier. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93:751–758PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tosi L, Slater J, Shaer C, Mostello L (1993) Latex allergy in spina bifida patients: prevalence and surgical implications. J Pediatr Orthop 13:709–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Turjanmaa K (1987) Incidence of immediate allergy to latex gloves in hospital personnel. Contact Dermatitis 17: 270–275PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Turjanmaa K (1988) Latex glove contact urticaria. Thesis, University of Tampere, Acta Univ Tamperensis A 254:1–86Google Scholar
  87. Turjanmaa K (1994) Update on occupational natural rubber latex allergy. Dermatol Clin 12:561–567PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Turjanmaa K, Laurila K, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Reunala T (1988a) Rubber contact urticaria. Allergenic properties of 19 brands of latex gloves. Contact Dermatitis 19:362–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Turjanmaa K, Reunala T, Räsänen L (1988b) Comparison of diagnostic methods in latex surgical glove contact urticaria. Contact Dermatitis 19:241–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Turjanmaa K, Alenius H, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Palosuo T, Reunala T (1995a) Commercial skin prick test preparations in the diagnosis of rubber latex allergy (abstract). J Allergy Clin Immunol 93:299Google Scholar
  91. Turjanmaa K, Cacioli P, Thompson R, Simlote P, Lopez M (1995b) Frequency of natural rubber latex allergy among US operating room nurses using skin prick testing (abstract). J Allergy Clin Immunol 95:214Google Scholar
  92. Turjanmaa K, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Reunala T, Alenius H, Palosuo T (1995c) Natural rubber latex allergy — the European experience. In: Fink J (ed) Latex allergy. (Immunology and allergy clinics of North America, vol 15) WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 71–88Google Scholar
  93. Turjanmaa K, Mäkinen-Kiljunen S, Alenius H, Reunala T, Palosuo T (1996) In vivo and in vitro evaluation of allergenicity of natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves used in health care: a nation-wide study (abstract). J Allergy Clin Immunol 97:325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Valenta R, Duchene M, Ebner C, Valent P, Sillaber C, Deviller P, Ferreira F, Tejkl M, Edelmann H, Kraft D, Scheiner O (1992) Profilins constitute a novel family of function plant pan-allergens. J Exp Med 175:377–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Vallier P, Balland S, Harf R, Valenta R, Deviller P (1995) Identification of profilin as an IgE-binding component in latex from Hevea brasiliensis: clinical implications. Clin Exp Allergy 25:332–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vandenplas O (1995) Occupational asthma caused by natural rubber latex. Eur Respir J 8:1957–1965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Vandenplas O, Delwiche JP, Evrard G, Aimont P, Vanderbrempt X, Jamart J, Delaunois L (1995) Prevalence of occupational asthma due to latex among hospital personnel. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151:54–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wilkinson SM, Beck MH (1996) Allergic contact dermatitis from latex rubber. Br J Dermatol 134:910–914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wrangsjö K, Wahlberg J, Axelsson I (1988) IgE-mediated allergy to natural rubber in 30 patients with contact urticaria. Contact Dermatitis 19:264–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wrangsjö K, Osterman K, van Hage-Hamsten M (1994) Glove-related skin symptoms among operating theatre and dental care unit personnel (II). Clinical examination, tests and laboratory findings indicating latex allergy. Contact Dermatitis 30:139–143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Yassin M, Lierl M, Fischer T, O’Brien K, Cross J, Steinmetz C (1994) Latex allergy in hospital employees. Ann Allergy 72:245–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Yeang HY, Cheoung KF, Sunderasan E, Hamzah S, Chew NP, Hamid S, Hamilton RG, Cardosa MJ (1996) The 14.6 kD (REF, Hev b 1) and 24 kD (Hev b 3) rubber particle proteins are recognized by IgE from spina bifida patients with latex allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 98:628–639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ylitalo L, Turjanmaa K, Palosuo T, Reunala T (1997) Natural rubber latex allergy in children who had not undergone surgery and children who had undergone multiple operations. J Allergy Clin Immunol 100:606–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Yunginger J, Jones R, Fransway A, Kelso J, Warner M, Hunt L, Reed C (1994) Extractable latex allergens and proteins in disposable medical gloves and other rubber products. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93:836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Turjanmaa
  • H. Alenius
  • S. Mäkinen-Kiljunen
  • T. Reunala
  • T. Palosuo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations