Hard metal is almost as hard as diamond. Hard metal has wide use in the mechanical industry for metal work — drilling, cutting and milling. Hard metal is manufactured in a complex industrial process. A fine powder including approximately 90% tungsten carbide and 10% cobalt plus small amounts of titanium, niob, tantal, molybdenum, sometimes 2–3% nickel and polyethylene glycol is pressed in a form. This results in a brittle black piece of a desired shape, which can be broken by hand force and which is easily finished or formed by grinding.


Contact Dermatitis Hard Metal Sodium Tungstate Hand Eczema Irritant Contact Dermatitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Boman A, Fischer T, et al. (1982) Guinea pig maximization test with tungstate. Contact Dermatitis 8:344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fischer T, Rystedt I (1983) Skin protection against ionized cobalt and sodium lauryl sulfate with barrier creams. Contact Dermatitis 9:125–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fischer T, Rystedt I (1984a) (in Swedish). Arbete och Hälsa, Arbetarskyddsverket, Solna, Sweden, Volume IGoogle Scholar
  4. Fischer T, Rystedt I (1984b) (in Swedish). Arbete och Hälsa, Arbetarskyddsverket, Solna, Sweden Volume IIGoogle Scholar
  5. Fischer T, Rystedt I (1985a) False-positive, follicular and irritant patch test reactions to metal salts. Contact Dermatitis 12: 93–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fischer T, Rystedt I (1985b) Hand eczema among hard-metal workers. Am J Ind Med 8:381–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fischer T, Rystedt I (1990) Influence of topical metal binding substances, vehicles, and corticosteroid creams on the allergic patch test reaction in metal-sensitive patients. Dermatol Clin 8:27–31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Fischer T, Fregert S, et al. (1984) Nickel release from ear piercing kits and earrings. Contact Dermatitis 10:39–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Rystedt I, Fischer T (1983) Relationship between nickel and cobalt sensitization in hard metal workers. Contact Dermatitis 9:195–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Rystedt I, Fischer T, et al. (1983) Patch testing with sodium tungstate. Contact Dermatitis 9:69–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Fischer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations