Occupational Phototoxicity and Photoallergy

  • V. DeLeo


Chemical photosensitivity is a term that is used to describe skin disease caused by the interaction of light and an exogenously acquired chemical agent. In all such reactions, both the chemical and radiation are necessary for the response to be produced. Exposure to the chemical photosensitizer can be either through the systemic or the topical route. The mechanism of the response can be either irritant (toxic) or allergic (Table 1). Chemical photosensitivity classified into four clinical entities: photoirritant contact dermatitis (PICD), photoallergic contact dermatitis (PACD), photoallergy to a systematic agent, and phototoxicity to a systematic agent.


Contact Dermatitis Photo Allergen Minimal Erythema Dose Covered Site Photopatch Testing 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Cronin E (1980) Contact dermatitis. Churchill Livingstone, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    DeLeo VA, Harber LC (1986) Contact Photodermatitis. In: Fisher AA (ed) Contact dermatitis, 3rd edn. Lea and Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marks Jr JG, DeLeo VA (1992) Contact and occupational dermatology, 2nd edn. Mosby-Yearbook, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Emmett EA (1990) Phototoxicity and photosensitivity reactions. In: Adams RM (ed) Occupational skin disease, 2nd edn. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Thune P, Jansen C, Wennersten G et al. (1988) The Scandinavian multicenter photopatch study: 1980 to 1985-final report. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 5:261–269Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Crow KD, Alexander E, Buck WHL, Johnson BE, Magnus IA, Porter AD (1961) Photosensitivity due to pitch. Br J Dermatol 73:220–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Emmett EA (1986) Cutaneous and ocular hazards of roofers. Occup Med 1:307–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Emmett EA, Stetzer W, Taphorn B (1977) Phototoxic keratoconjunctivitis from coal-tar pitch volatiles. Science 198: 841–842PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kochevar IE, Armstrong RB, Einbinder J, Walther RR, Harber LC (1982) Coal tar phototoxicity: active compounds and action spectra. Photochem Photobiol 38:65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jonas AD (1943) Creosote burns. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 25: 418–420Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heyl T, Mellett WA (1982) Creosote dermatitis in an ammunition depot. S Afr Med J 62:66–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tunget CL, Turchen SG, Manoguerra AS, Clark RF, Pudoff DE. Sunlight and the plant: a toxic combination: severe phytophotodermatitis from Cneoridium dumosumGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Klaber R (1942) Phytophotodermatitis. Br J Dermatol 54: 193–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Birmingham DJ, Key MM, Tubich GE, Perone VB (1961) Phototoxic bullae among celery harvesters. Arch Dermatol 83:73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (1985) Leads from the MMWR: phytophotodermatitis among grocery workers. JAMA 253:753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Emmett EA, Taphorn BR, Kominsky JR (1977) Phototoxicity occurring during the manufacture of ultraviolet cured ink. Arch Dermatol 113:770–775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gardiner JS, Dickson A, Macleod TM, Frain-Bell W (1972) The investigation of photocontact dermatitis in a dye manufacturing process. Br J Dermatol 86:264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thune P (1984) Contact and photocontact allergy to sunscreens. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 1:5–9Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Menz MB, Sigfrid AM, Connolly SM (1988) Photopatch testing: a six-year experience. J Am Acad Dermatol 18: 1044–1047PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    DeLeo VA, Suarez SM, Maso MJ (1992) Photoallergic contact dermatitis: results of photopatch testing in New York — 1985 to 1990. Arch Dermatol 128:1513–1518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wilkinson DS (1961) Photodermatitis due to tetrachlorosal-icylanilide. Br J Dermatol 73:213–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Calnan CD, Harman RRM, Wells GC (1961) Photodermatitis from soaps. BMJ 2:1266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Frain-Bell W, Gardiner J (1976) Photocontact dermatitis due to quindoxin. Contact Dermatitis 1:256–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Scott KW, Dawson TAJ (1974) Photocontact dermatitis arising from the presence of quindoxin in annual feeding stuffs. Br J Dermatol 90:543–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schauder S, Schroder W, Geier J (1996) Olaquindox-induced airborne photoallergic contact dermatitis followed by transient or persistent light reactions in 15 pig breeders. Contact Dermatitis 35:344–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mark KA, Brancaccio RR, Soter NA, Cohen DE (1999) Allergic and photoallergic contact dermatitis to plant and pesticide allergens. Arch Dermatol 135:67–70PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tronnier H (1970) Zur Lichtempfindlichkeit von Ekzematikern (unter besonderer Berucksichtigung des Chromat-Ekz-ems). Arch Klin Exp Dermatol 237:494–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Feuerman EJ (1971) Chromates as the cause of contact dermatitis in housewives. Dermatologica 143:292–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Burry JM, Kuchel R, Reid JG, Kirk J (1973) Australian bush dermatitis: Compositae dermatitis in South Australia. Med J Aust 1:110–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Epstein S (1960) Role of dermal sensitivity in ragweed contact dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 82:48–55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Thune PO, Solberg YJ (1980) Photosensitivity and allergy to aromatic lichen acids, Compositae oleoresins and other plant substances. Contact Dermatitis 6:81–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    (1986) Drugs that cause photosensitivity. Med Lett Drugs Ther 28:51–52Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. DeLeo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations