Detergent Workers

  • M. Vanhanen
  • L. Kanerva


A large variety of cleansing products are in wide use, such as personal cleansing products, laundry detergents, dishwashing detergents and household cleaners. Manufacture of these products comprises a broad range of processing operations. The number of different ingredients in different kinds of detergents and cleansing agents is very large. Moreover, vivid research and development contribute to continuous replacement of chemicals and product forms. The trend now is toward both concentrated high-performance (compact) powder detergents and liquid formulations. These changes are partly due to environmental reasons. For the same reason, there is a demand for phosphate-free and biodegradable formulations. In the United States, a shift to the high-energy washing machine, which is already a standard in Europe, is expected, also resulting in the need for reformulated detergents. These machines use less water at lower wash temperatures, thus enabling the use of better enzymes.


Amine Oxide Alcohol Sulfate Powder Detergent Sodium Perborate Cinnamic Aldehyde 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Flindt MLH (1969) Pulmonary disease due to inhalation of derivatives of bacillus subtilis containing proteolytic enzymes. Lancet 1:1177–1181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gilson TL, Juniper CP, Martin RB, Weill H (1976) Biological effects of proteolytic enzymes. Thorax 31:621–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Göthe C-J, Nilzen A, Holmgren A, Szamosi A, Werner M, Wide L (1972) Medical problems in the detergent industry caused by proteolytic enzymes from bacillus subtilis. Acta Allergologica 27:63–86Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    McMurrain KD (1970) Dermatological and pulmonary responses in the manufacturing of detergent enzyme products. J Occup Med 12:416–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vanhanen M, Tuomi T, Tiikkainen U, Tupasela O, Voutilainen R, Nordman H. The risk of enzyme allergy in the detergent industry. Occup Environ Med (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Vanhanen
  • L. Kanerva

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations