There is a large class of interesting problems for which no reasonably fast algorithms have been developed. Many of these problems are optimization problems that arise frequently in applications. Given such a hard optimization problem it is often possible to find an efficient algorithm whose solution is approximately optimal. For some hard optimization problems we can use probabilistic algorithms as well — these algorithms do not guarantee the optimum value, but by randomly choosing sufficiently many “witnesses” the probability of error may be made as small as we like.


Transportation Metaphor Cuted Reformer 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zbigniew Michalewicz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of North CarolinaCharlotteUSA

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