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Th Thorium pp 199-246 | Cite as

Thorium Recoil Reactions

  • Kurt Roessler
Part of the Gmelin Handbook of Inorganic Chemistry / Gmelin Handbuch der Anorganischen Chemie book series (GMELIN, volume T-h / A-E / A / 4)

Abstract

High-energy chemistry describes the physical and chemical reactions of atoms, ions, molecules, molecular fragments, etc. that are not in thermal equilibrium with their surroundings [1 to 3]. Nuclear recoil chemistry (also called hot atom chemistry or chemical effects of nuclear transformations) is a special branch of high energy chemistry [1 to 12]. It deals with the chemical fate of an energetic ion or atom from the moment of its creation by a nuclear process to its thermalization or the formation of chemical bonds. Nuclear processes leading to ejection of particles, γ-rays or electrons, can impart to the nuclei concerned a recoil energy ranging from a few eV for β decay to about 100 MeV for nuclear fission. The resulting “hot” atoms with their high kinetic energy and often concomitant electronic excitation are not in thermal equilibrium with the surrounding medium. Although very popular the phrase “hot” is somewhat misleading, since it may convey the idea of a temperature. The conventional conversion 1 eV ≈ 104 K does not apply to a single atom. Heat is based on cooperative, multiparticle effects at, or close to, equilibrium. This misunderstanding has led in solid state physics and hot atom chemistry to the incorrect usage of the terms “thermal spikes” or “molten zones” as a consequence of ion implantation or nuclear recoil.

Keywords

Linear Energy Transfer Recoil Energy Nuclear Recoil Collision Cascade Recoil Atom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt Roessler
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Chemie 1 (Nuklearchemie)Kernforschungsanlage Jülich GmbHJülichFederal Republic of Germany

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